orchard.doc 6 Jul 2009
Joseph Orchard was baptised on the 20th of February
1800, the second son of the many children of William and Elizabeth (Betty)
Orchard of Mawgan‑in‑Meneage, Helston,
Philip Orchard married Mary around 1712
Philip was baptised 10th May 1719, son of Philip and Mary.
Philip Orchard married Mary TREWREN around 1738
Joseph was baptised 6th January 1752, son of Philip and Mary
Joseph Orchard married Prudence ROGERS around 1770
William was baptised 27 April 1773, son of Joseph and Prudence
William Orchard married Elizabeth (Betty) COOKE around 1796,
the eldest daughter of Thomas and Jane Cooke.
William ORCHARD and Betty COOKE's known family of six children were all born and baptised in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage, and included:‑
William Orchard baptised 28th January 1798
Joseph Orchard baptised 20th February 1800
Elizabeth Orchard baptised 13th June 1802
Mary Orchard baptised 5th April 1812
Jane Orchard baptised 13th March 1814
Hannibal Orchard baptised 9th April 1819
The Church of Mawgan-in-Meneage
Joseph grew up in Mawgan and learned the trade of a
pavior, the layer of flat paving stones. Around 1828 he married Elizabeth
Bolitho, baptised 11th June 1808, one of the very large family of children of
John and Mary Bolitho of Mawgan. The first four of their children were all born
in Mawgan, showing that was their residence, however when young Joseph (junior)
was born in 1838 they were living in Ponsanooth with Joseph (senior) working as
a thatcher. At the age of 48 he decided
that his family had more chance to flourish away from the small rural Cornish
towns, and taking his wife Elizabeth (nee Bolitho) and his children sailed for
John Orchard, born about 1828
Elizabeth Orchard bapt 4th July 1830 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage
Mary Orchard baptised 8th April 1832 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage
Susan Orchard baptised 8th June 1834 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage
Joseph Orchard born 12th November 1838 and baptised 20th April 1839 in Stithians
Thus the family of seven included two near adult
children, two teenage girls, and the younger eight year old Joseph
(junior). Another elder sister Emily
Orchard married to Hannabel Williams and was believed to also emmigrate for
On arrival at
Joseph's diary of the voyage and further family
details were contained in the letter sent by Joseph Orchard to his father,
brothers and sisters in Cornwall, imploring them to join him in the wonderful
new land, full of opportunity. The
original of this letter is now in the Museum in Helston,
On arrival on board the "Westminster" Joseph Orchard (senior) made arrangements for his family to live in two rooms which he called "huts" at 8/‑ per week, houses being very scarce in early Adelaide. His boxes of goods cost him 7/‑ to be transported from Port Adelaide to this location, which was most likely in Queen Street, where they lived for a few years until moving to Angas Street.
He took on any labouring jobs he could find for himself
and his eldest son John. For John, he
found tree clearing at the rate of 4/‑ plus two pints of beer per
day. Joseph himself started at road
paving for 24/‑ per week. His eldest daughter Elizabeth began as a
child's maid and then a cook for just over
15 pounds per year. Of their two
teenage daughters, Susan was a maid in a
large house and Mary was a child minder.
Young eight year old Joseph in his few first weeks in the Colony was
shoe shining and boot cleaning at a house for 1/6 per week, but then was sent
to school. Another daughter of Joseph
and Elizabeth, Emily arrived in
In the "Local Intelligence" of Adelaide's “Register”
newspaper, the family first comes to notice with an early medical operation,
which must have been quite ‘a first’ in
The operation of removing a cancer was skillfully
performed by Dr. Smith, in the presence of Dr. Nash and several others of the
faculty, at the hospital, on Thursday
last. The patient, Mrs. Elizabeth Orchard, wife of Joseph
The operation was quite a success for she lived for
another 20 years to raise her family in
One Joseph Orchard, gentleman, is listed as making the
return crossing from Launceston, Tasmania
back to Adelaide in South Australia. He arrived on 21st May 1850 on the
145 ton coastal brig “Peri” with
Captain Winsborrow as its master. There was no family accompanying him on this trip, so he was probably on a
business trip or visiting relatives in
After taking labouring jobs around
The ‘Seven Stars Hotel’ according to the "Book of Hotels" was run by other Orchards at later times. From 1873 to 1879 James (? or Joseph) Orchard was licensee. In 1894 the licensee was J Orchard, which was Joseph (junior) again aged about 54, and by this time would have been living in Orange Grove. The hotel appears on National Trust Recorded List #1140
Elizabeth Orchard, the wife of Joseph (senior),
despite the breast operation in 1850 survived until 8th May 1870, when she died
of heart disease at their residence in
Of the children of Joseph (senior) and Elizabeth (Bolitho)
John Orchard of
Elizabeth Orchard married John ADAMSON and died of
Consumption on 27th February 1870 at her residence in
Susan Orchard of
Mary Orchard married on 15th July 1863 at
Joseph Orchard (junior), the youngest and my ancestor
carried on the family name in
JOSEPH ORCHARD (Junior)
Joseph Orchard (junior) had been born on the 20th
April 1839 in
Eleanor Jane Williams was born on the 28th of August 1840 and with her sister Thomasina Williams had probably arrived as assisted female immigrants around the mid 1850's. Thomasina Williams married John Williams on the 21st of November 1867, but she died of Peritonitis on the 14th of January 1873, aged 32, at Brownhill Creek.
Joseph Orchard (junior) and Eleanor Jane Williams had
a family of nine children born in
Elizabeth Ellen Orchard born 8th December 1864 (died 22 Dec 1864)
Joseph Orchard born 14th December 1865 (died 9 Jan 1866)
Susan Elizabeth Orchard born 17th May 1867 (died 26 Nov 1951)
Eleanor Jane Orchard born 27th April 1869 (died 24 Jun 1964)
Joseph John Orchard born 5th July 1870 (died 27 Jan 1871)
Alice Orchard born 15th August 1872
Joseph Albert Orchard born 27th September 1872 (died 19 Jun 1874)
Ethel Orchard born 5th October 1874
Florence Orchard born November 1877 (died 3 Dec 1877)
however only four girls survived infancy.
When Joseph married Eleanor in 1864 he was a farmer
Capsise at Norwood ‑ Mrs. Orchard, of Angas Street, and some of her children were being driven through Norwood on Thursday, returning from their farm at Magill, when on turning a corner at the Old Colonist Inn the driver capsised the vehicle. We are glad, however, to be able to say though bruised none of the passengers had any bones broken.
Twenty three years later when Susan married, her father Joseph was a farmer of Baroota, in the Mid North of the State, with the marriage ceremony being performed at the farmhouse.
Joseph and Eleanor Jane built a large house in Mitcham surrounded by a lovely orange garden, and named it Orange Grove. The old home is possibly still there but the grove is now developed as a housing estate. They lived for some years in this home. Joseph Orchard was a retired gentleman when his wife Eleanor died at the age of 59 years at their residence in Orange Grove, Mitcham on the 10th July 1900. He survived her for just nine months. He died on the 11th of March 1901, aged 61 years, also at Orange Grove.
Of the four daughters of Joseph and Eleanor Jane (Williams) who reached adulthood the following is known:‑
Elizabeth Orchard married on the 25th March 1890 at Baroota to William John
KITTO (21st September 1857 ‑ 29 September 1926) and they raised a family
of six children in
Jane Orchard married on the 12th March 1889 in
Orchard married in 1904 to Charles Edward (Ed) WALTERS, who was a tailor in
· Ethel Orchard married in SA. in 1898 to George John OWENS of Gladstone, SA. however their family has yet to be located.
JOSEPH'S BROTHER ‑ WILLIAM
“William Orchard when a lad went to sea for a voyage or two, but his Mother could not rest for thedanger and he was apprenticed as a shoe maker to Ben Tonkin at St Martin where he got aquainted with his future wife and both went to Class meeting together about the year 1813, in ten years after they were married he had bought the leasehold of Carrabone from Edward Dale, he settled there and began a shoemaking business which grew to be a prosperous one, he usually had two apprentices, so he learnt a great many and they generally turned out well. He also had the 5 meadows and kept two cows. He began to preach about 1820, and to lead a Class 5 years after, but his active mind and superior intelligence drew upon him the opposition of those who envied him, which was strikingly manifested just after the Great Revival of 1839”. (from Boaden’s Memoirs)
In response to the urgings in Joseph's letter for his
brothers to join him, he was first followed to
· Edward Oates Orchard was baptised on the 2nd February 1824 Helston and died in 1852, aged 28 years, in Collingwood, Vic.
Orchard was baptised on the 25th April 1825 Helston‑Wesleyan and died on
the 25th October 1887 in
Orchard was born on the 30th December 1830 and baptised on the 8th February 1830
in Mawgan-in-Meneage. Clarinda was
married quite soon after arrival, on the 1st January 1851 to yet another
Cornish immigrant, also from Mawgan‑in‑Meneage, John TREWENACK
(26th April 1829‑1891) who had arrived on “Henry Lorequer” in 1849, and they raised a family of six in Port
Augusta and Kent Town. John was a blacksmith of
Orchard was baptised on the 12th October 1834 Mawgan‑in‑Meneage. He
married Sarah and died in
Ann Orchard was baptised on the 25th December 1836 Mawgan‑in‑Meneage
and died in
The family had sailed from
JOSEPH'S BROTHER ‑
In 1850, Joseph's younger brother Hannibal Orchard (9
Apr 1819 ‑ 6 Apr 1886) followed to
Jane Orchard was born about 1847 in
Orchard was born about 1849 in
Blewett Orchard was born on the 26th April 1851 in SA. He married his second cousin Hester Ann
TREWENACK in Moonta Mines on the 27th November 1873. They moved to
Blewett Orchard was born on the 24th April 1855 in SA, and died at Fullarton,
SA on the 30th October 1941. She married
in Redruth, SA. on the 26th March 1878 to William Grieg EVANS (9th December
1847 - 5th February 1934). William was
· Martha Ann Blewett Orchard was born on the 11th October 1859.
· Hannibal Orchard was born on the 24th October 1861 (died very young)
· Hannibal Blewett Orchard was born on the 21st December 1862, (died 1886, aged 23)
· Frederick Joseph Orchard was born on the 29th January 1865, (died 14 Oct 1924,age 56)
· Walter John Orchard was born on the 24th July 1867, (died 1868, aged 1 year)
Hannibal Orchard and his family settled in
JOSEPH'S COUSIN ‑ JOSEPH
Joseph Orchard (the cousin) was born in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage on 3rd November 1799, to Joseph (second son of Joseph and Prudence Rogers of Mawgan) and Ann CURNOW. With Joseph (my ancestor) born 20th February 1800 to William (first son of Joseph and Prudence Rogers) and Betty COOKE, this meant there was just three months age difference between the two young cousins named Joseph Orchard. The two families lived together in Mawgan with the two Josephs growing up together as almost twins but both with the same name. Both married around 1825 and had their first few children all in Mawgan, and each had their last born in Ponsanooth where both had moved around 1838/1839.
Joseph (the cousin) married Mary Ellis around 1824 and all but their youngest were baptised in Mawgan-in-Meneage. Their children are as follows:‑
· Joseph Ellis Orchard was born in Poundsworth on the 19th September 1825 and baptised on the 30th Octrober 1825 (died 1893 Chewton, Vic)
· Mary Anna Orchard was baptised on the 25th June 1829
· William Henry Orchard was baptised on the 10th June 1832 (died about 1833 Mawgan, Con)
· William Henry Orchard was baptised on the 20th August 1837 (died 1901 Prahan, Vic)
· John Orchard was baptised on the 25th August 1839 Madron, Con. (died 1859 Melbourne, Vic)
With John being born in Madron, near
The family arrived in
Joseph Ellis Orchard
The eldest son Joseph Ellis Orchard married in Madron
on the 21st December 1844 to Elizabeth Ann RICHARDS, born about 1826 in
John Orchard was baptised on the 13th April 1845 Madron,
Ann Wright Orchard was baptised on the 1st August 1847 in Madron,
Henry Orchard was born in
Jane Orchard was born on the 13th November 1851 in
Richards Orchard was born on the 13th June 1854 in
Henry Orchard was born in 1858 in Forest Creek, Vic. and married in 1879 in
Chewton to Elizabeth Jane TREMBATH (1858-1928),
daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (nee Richards). They had six children all born in
Chewton. Both Elizabeth Jane and William
Henry died in
Francis Orchard was born in 1860 in
· John Ellis Orchard was born in Chewton about 1864. He worked at the GPO, Melbourne and was killed in an accident at Clifton Hill on the 24th February 1887. He was buried in Chewton aged just 22 years. He never married.
Agnes Orchard was born in
The parents of this family lived in Chewton until
Joseph Ellis Orchard died on 6th March 1893, aged 67 years. His wife Elizabeth Ann (nee Richards) died on
6th September 1914 aged 88 years, in Brunswick East, Victoria, at the house of Mary Garrett, one of her many
children. Both are buried in
William Henry Orchard
The second surviving son of Joseph (the cousin) was
William Henry Orchard who is first seen in the gold rush areas of
Ellis Orchard, the first of the family, was born in 1860 in Forest Creek, Vic. but
died as an infant in 1861 also in
· Mary Catherine Orchard was born in 1862 in Daylesford, Vic. and married in 1884 to William Charles YARWOOD of Castlemaine. There are at least two children
· Elizabeth Ann Orchard was born in 1864 in Daylesford, Vic. and married m. 1887 Vic to John COCKREILL of Collingwwood.
· Louisa Ellen Orchard was born in 1866 in Daylesford, Vic.
Henry Orchard was born in 1869 in Chewton, Vic. and married in 1890 in
· Albert Jeffrey Orchard was born inn 1873 in Nerring, Vic.
· John Ellis Orchard was born in 1875 in Nerring, Vic. and died in 1895, aged 20 years, at Mildura, Vic. He was unmarried.
· Arthur Ernest Orchard was born in 1879 in Eaglehawk , Vic.
Through the birth places of the children it seems
William Henry came to Victoria around the same time his brother Joseph Ellis
Orchard moved from
William Henry Orchard died in 1901 in Prahan, Vic four
years after his wife Catherine (nee Prendergast) who died in 1897 in
The third and final surviving son and brother to
Joseph Ellis and William Henry Orchard also arrived in
MORE COUSINS ‑ COUSIN JOHN
There is a third family of cousins to both my Joseph
and his cousin Joseph. An uncle of
theirs, Philip was baptised in Mawgan-in-Meneage on 1st March 1778, the third
son of Joseph and Prudence (nee
Jane was born in that same period of time in Mawgan-in-Meneage that produced the two Josephs. She was baptised on the 13th January 1799, and married at the age of 22 years in 1821 to James ROWE (1793-1863), son of James and Grace (nee Rawling). James was a tin miner living at Goonhilly Downes at the time of their marriage, and Jane’s home was at Grade, near Mawgan. They had eight children, the first being born at Mawgan and then seven others were born at Camborne where they lived then. Both Jane and James died in England, Jane at Camborne in Cornwall on 22nd February 1853 and James at Islington in Devon in 1863, but by 1861 all surviving male children and there were five of them, had emmigrted to Australia, mainly to Fryerstown, Victoria.
With some born in
Philip and Jane (nee Hitchens) had a son John baptised
12th June 1803 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage. John married around 1825 to Jane BOLITHO,
possibly a sister to my Joseph's wife Elizabeth (nee Bolitho). Their children were Jane (1827‑), John
(1829‑), William Hitchings (1831‑), Avis (1834‑), Philip
(1836‑1907), Elizabeth (1839‑), and probably Hanible (1842‑1920). Two of these sons apparently arrived in
Philip Orchard was baptised on 19th June 1836 in St
Kevern, near Mawgan, and in 1860 was married in
Hanible Orchard was born about 1842 in
Elizabeth Ann Orchard born 1868 Growler's Creek, Vic
Philip Orchard born 1870 Growler's Creek, Vic
Henry Orchard born 1871 Growler's Creek, Vic
Margaret Mary Orchard born 1873 Growler's Creek, Vic
Jane Orchard born 1874 Growler's Creek, Vic
Minnie Orchard born 1876 died an infant 1877 Wandiligong, Vic
William James Orchard born 1877 Wandiligong, Vic
John Francis Orchard born 1879 Wandiligong, Vic
Catherine May Orchard born 1883 Growler's Creek, Vic (died young in 1888, aged 5 years, at Wandiligong, Vic)
Frederick Orchard born 1884 Growler's Creek, Vic.
Margaret died in 1899, aged 52 years at Wandiligong,
There follows a collection of random correspondences from members of the family.
- Joseph ORCHARD,
Joseph wrote to his father and
brothers encouraging them to join him in
Diary - John BOADEN’s memoirs mentions the Orchard family – 1841 to 1856 [link]
These notes that mention the ORCHARD family have been extracted from the Memoirs
Letter - Eleanor Jane BOADEN (nee ORCHARD) – 1854 [link]
Letter – William ORCHARD – 1876 [link]
William wrote to his sister Eleanor
Jane BOADEN in
Letter from Joseph
Dear Father, Brothers and Sisters, and all enquiring friends
I now have the pleasure of writing you, hoping to find you in good health as this leaves us, thank God for it.
Saturday the 18th [March] we left the Depot at
On 20th March we weighed anchor about 6 in the evening. A fair breeze for about two or three hours, then the wind changed to almost an opposite direction, and blew strong, so that we were tossed about a great deal, and I believe most of us lay sleepless the greater part of the night, momentarily expecting to go to the bottom. But the same God who ruleth the heavens and the earth hath the command of the sea also; and I had reason to believe that several of our little company could trust in Him.
The next day the wind was not so high, but the sea was very rough and nearly all the emigrants were very sick. The following night the wind blew very strong again, but we were not so much alarmed, although we found it difficult to keep ourselves in bed for the rolling of the ship. The next day we had it more calm and remained so until Sunday 26th; but the wind being contrary the greater part of the time, we did not make that progress in the voyage which we wished to do. On the night of the 26th we were visited again with a gale of a wind, which alarmed us a great deal; the night was truly a restless one.
Monday morning following, about a quarter past seven, during a heavy squall,
and the vessel pitching with great force, the fore top gallant mast, together
with the fore top gallant yard jib- boom and flying jib-boom and
dolphin-striker, main royal mast, and main top gallant mast were
carried away!!! our ship carpenter being in bed at the time. Shortly after, however, the weather became
more favourable, and the emigrants rendered themselves generally useful in
gathering in the broken parts of the ship; assisting in getting the mast right
again etc, (We lost our mast on the coast of the
I myself was helping about planing. The Captain was a ship- carpenter himself, and he worked like another man about the repairs, or we should have been obliged to put in for a time to some place till we had recovered our damage.
wind had now become fair so we hoisted all the sail we could, and were carried
at the rate of 140 miles in 24 hours. On
Thursday 30th had good wind for some time, being then about 200 miles from the
4th, still fair for a few days; saw a great many large fish. On the 7th were 3,856 miles from
This morning we witnessed a death, which was that of a child, about 2 months old from Camborne, her father's name is Henry Lethean, she was their only child so you may judge the parent's feelings. At about , the sun shining nearly vertical over our heads, the child was brought on deck (the principal part of the emigrants and sailors being present to witness the same) and the Surgeon very solemnly read the burial. Immediately after the child was a thrown overboard in a canvas bag, with stones in the bottom. We were this day all but at a standstill, being nearly a dead calm.
Sunday 16th the weather much the same; in the night about there was a child born, the first birth on board, which made up our former number, the father's name is James Mill, near Redruth. Several were at this time very sick, grown people especially: the women found it enough to do to bear the heat. A great part of the men were obliged to sleep on the upper deck in order to give their wives & children free access to the air, who were situated below. Several of the women with their children preferred sleeping also on the upper deck.
I sit writing, I sweat as freely as ever I sweat mowing in my life. Our days at this time were shorter than in
Tuesday 18th, two young women fainted with the excessive heat, it was in the evening just after being ordered below; they were immediately taken on deck, and laid flat on their backs. The surgeon without delay threw three or four buckets of salt water over each of them and they soon revived again.
Sunday 23rd. The weather much the same, very hot and calm. The second death happened on this day, being the daughter of James Repper, aged 1 year and 7 months, from Breage, the mother being the daughter of John Hosken, Grainge, in the parish of Mawgan. Shortlyafter this death occurred,the child was brought on deck, and the burial read to her, and then thrown overboard. It was managed quite as well as anyone could expect on board a vessel.
Soon after the death of this child we were all called together by the Surgeon and received from him a solemn warning to be very careful not to be below more than we were obliged by day; and all the men except those whose families were sick, were strictly ordered to sleep on the upper-deck, to which they readily consented. A great many families slept up for 15 or 20 days.
24th another death, the daughter of John Currin,
28th, during the last fortnight we have shortened our journey but little; this was a continual day's rain; it rained
all the day just as it rains for a few minutes sometimes in
30th and preceding day the wind blew up,
so that, through mercy we went ahead a little; 30th with sorrow of heart we
attended the 5th funeral, the son of Mark Allen from
May 1st, 2nd, and five following days, ran again 11 knots an hour; the wind blowing fair from the northeast, and I am happy to state that we are getting into a cooler climate; and we hoped a healthier one.
May 8th another death, being the daughter of Henry Samson from Illogan Cornwall, aged 1 year and 7 months. On the following day (May 9th) the wife of the said Henry Samson was unexpectedly delivered of a 7 months child, being still born.
saw 3 ships for three days; one sailed across our bow about 9 in the evening;
if it had been by day we could have spoken to them. 11th saw a whale, but not large, close by our
ship. 13th fell in with a ship laden
with coals, going to
16th, the wife of William Hanker from
19th wind fair, steering East and by South, 19 knots. 20th and 21st still fair, 10 knots. 20th we were sorry to witness another death on this day, being the 7th; which was that of a young woman from near London, aged 21 years.
May21st Mr Hanker's two infants were publickly
baptized, as at home, by the Surgeon, named respectively, Adelaide Emily and
22nd saw a large quantity of birds, called the Cape pigeons, (like pigeons are
at home) the
the same morning saw a Brig ahead of us and steered up along side about half
past three. Our captain hailed, and said ? Where are you from. They replied
On the 23rd the wife of John Warner from Northamptonshire gave birth to a daughter, seeming willing if possible, to keep up our numbers. Good breeze 9 knots.
24th still the same, 10 knots. 25th still fair, but the wind much harder, the sea ran mountains high. Through mercy we were all spared, and by the wind being fair we were heaved ahead 12 knots. 26th remaining fair.
27th not much wind, 3 knots; on the same day the Captain sent for me to come on the poop with my line to catch some large birds; tried some time, and caught nothing. Then the Captain asked me if I thought I could shoot one, he said I should have a gun. I loaded and fired and brought down nothing, save some feathers. By this time some other men had come on the poop, and said they were sure to kill some, a great many tried, but met with no better success than myself. We had two guns, and had a sporting- day, but killed nothing. The Captain found us powder and shot.
27th. Another death this morning, being the daughter of Buckley Bevian from
1st for the previous night there was but very little sleep for any person on
board the "Westminster"; we had been tossed about very much, and
found it difficult to keep in bed; but I am happy to say the wind remained fair
and we were making rapid progress towards the port we were so much longing to
reach in safety. The weather at this time was cold, I should say quite as cold
as March weather in
9th, this evening the wife of James Repper from
11th and 12th still fair, 8 knots. 13th and 14th still fair, 10 and 11 knots an hour.
16th, about saw land ahead of us, and that was indeed
a pleasant sight to behold, being the first land we had seen since we left
23rd. The past week had been very cold and stormy, but fair, 11 knots. 25th much calmer, 5 knots. I was on the poop with my line and caught two birds called the Albatross, which measured 12 feet 6 inches across their wings.
Another death, the son of John Doidge from the South of Devon, aged about 4
years. On the 26th another death, the
daughter of Henry Salt from
4th, this morning came in sight of
By the time that the anchor was overboard, a boat had come alongside with beef, mutton, fine cauliflowers, and fine cabbage, all which we were glad to see, and moreover that we were come so near our journey's end, which we had been so anxiously desiring to reach after being so long at sea.
On Wednesday and Thursday we lay there at anchor, there being no wind. On Friday we got in to the river with the tide. The river was narrow with trees on each side growing in the water. the land on both sides was very flat, appearing not much above the water. On Sunday about we got in along side of the Quay of Port Adelaide. I might say there were some scores of people there to receive us, with horses and Spring Carts from the country to make bargains with the immigrants.
By the following Wednesday nearly all had left the ship. A son of Joseph Orchard, my cousin whom I lodged with at Ponsanooth several years since, and a Mr Rogers who lodged with us at Ponsanooth who was accompanied by his brother-in-law and two children, were there on the quay waiting against we came in. Mr Rogers's brother-in-law had been there for 7 years past.
I went ashore; and to see how the people drank was astonishing; they appeared to regard money but very little; and they seemed to spend a pound with as little indifference as you would two-pence at home.
Edward Williams and his wife engaged with a man for 1 pound a week and rations, to live in the house, and everything provided them. I thought that was not bad till they could suit better. He and his wife were at our house on Sunday, September 17th. He had his wages raised to L1-4-0 weekly, out of which they manage to lay by L1 or more, which is little better than a poor man can do at home. They were very well and liked it well.
the Monday I and John went into the town of
On Tuesday we left the ship, and had our boxes carried to the town, which cost us 7/-. The ground from the port to the town is very flat, and for many miles around the ground is sandy.
Now by this time you will of course like to hear how we are getting on. I cannot say much as yet. They say here that this is a dead time, for about 2 months. Little that I see, there is plenty of work. On Wednesday I went around to see what I could, and got some work for John to take up trees on the following day, at the rate of 4/- and two pints of beer per day. On Thursday I went out about 3 miles in the bush, when I saw fine gardens, peas and beans in blossom; potatoes almost ripe; and as fine a country as you would wish to see.
On Friday and Saturday I went to work two days for a parson, to make a road, and for which I had 11/- which was not bad pay. On the following Monday I went to work for a Jew, to make roads in a lawn at L1-4-0 per week, and with whom I worked 7 weeks.
You will doubtless like to know how things are sold here. Meat is very cheap. I very often think on the poor families at home. The best beef is 3d, some 2d, some 1 1/2d, as good as you get at home for 6d. Large hock for 6d or 9d as good as for 2/6 at home. Best legs of mutton 3d. fore quarter at 2d per lb. Head and hinges of a sheep for 3d, pork from 6d to 8d. Butter was sold at 1/9 when we came here, now it is 1/-. Good sugar 3d, good tea 2/-, eggs 1/- per doz. Apples are dear, being from 6d to 10d per pound; soap 4d per lb, candles 6d per lb. Potatoes from 1 1/2d to 2d per pound. Flour 2d per pound.
meat thrown away to the dogs here than families can have at home. You may have a fine milch cow for
L1-10-0. Our cattle here as fine as in
We were as comfortable as we could expect in the ship coming over, our captain and mate were very kind to us, they gave us a great many things, they gave us as good as a L1 more than the rest had. Some were always grumbling. I mended some boots for the mate, and Susan mended some stockings and gloves for the mate and captain. Susan and another little girl the Captain put in the cabin, and called them his two little maidens, they had nuts, tarts, and bread and treacle to eat. I had many glasses of grog, and John also had grog; we helped them with the ropes sometimes.
I will say to you again my dear friends, there are no letters altered here. When you land you are all free to go and get as much as you can for yourselves. If you should not get work very soon after landing, you may go to the Government at L1-0-0 per week till you get better.
Men's shoes 14/- per pair; women's boots 12/- per pair. Mending is dear, 6d for one piece. From 4/- to 5/- to tap a pair of shoes. Shoemakers here do not like to mend any. I may mend as much as I like to do. Shoemakers do well here. Mason's get 7/6 per day; Carpenters 7/- per day.
You will do well, dear friends, not to stay at home to starve; here is plenty of work, plenty of meat, and plenty of money. I bless God that I am come here, and I do wish I was here before. We would go through our voyage again to come. Now you must judge for yourselves. I can say I am some pounds better now than when I came. Betsy sends her love and that of the rest to her Father, brothers and sister. We are quite well at present and like it very well. I hope to see some of you over; do not stay at home to work for nothing. John and I am now working for some weeks past at 5/- per day. If any of you should come, bring whatever you like to carry; bring any sixe boxes; they are not looked over. Earthenware is dear, iron is dear. You would do well to bring a large axe and saw to cut firewood.
The land around the town for some miles is like gentlemen's lawns, the finest place I ever saw. John Smith is working at some stores, at L1 per week and rations; he is living close by us and doing very well.
The weather has been very fine since we have been here, some days as hot as summer at home. The summer here is hot. Do not think we are without friends here; there are plenty. Two sisters to James Julian who married Betsy Williams of the Garris live close by us. Excuse my writing, and I would write more if I could stay. The post leaves tomorrow.
P.S. My dear brothers I should like to see you
have been living in
to me at
From your affectionate brother.
Dated September 26th 1848.
NOTES regarding the letter
was a son of William and Betsy Orchard of Mawgan-in- Meneage, Helston,
He was followed in 1849 on the "TRAFALGAR" by his brother William Orchard who was accompanied by his wife, Jane (nee Oates), two sons and four daughters. William was a shoemaker.
1850, their youngest brother Hannibal, with his wife Mary (nee Blewett) and two
daughters, arrived in 1850 on the "
The original of this letter is in the Helston Folk Museum, Helston, Cornwall, included in the memoirs of John Boaden (1828- 1904) who also migrated to S.A. with his parents in 1850 on the "STAG", and later married Eleanor Jane Orchard, daughter of William Orchard.
ON THE “
board the "
Births on Board. (in chronological order)
child b. 16 Mar 1848 (d. 28 Apr 1848, aged 6 weeks)
Henry SAMSON from Illogan,
child - stillborn 9 May 1848
William HANKER from
twin Adelaide Emily HANKER b. 16 May bp. 21 May 1848
twin Jane Westminster HANKER b. 16 May bp. 21 May 1848
(d. 1 Jul 1848, aged 6 weeks)
to John WARNER from Northamptonshire,
dau b. 23 May 1848
Samuel STONE from Breage,
son b. 31 May 1848
James REPPER of Breage,
son b. 9 Jun 1848
Deaths on Board. (in chronological order)
Henry LETHLEAN from Camborne,
dau, 2 months old. d. 15 Apr 1848
James REPPER from Breage,
dau, aged 1 year 7 months, d. 23 Apr 1848
John CURRIN from
dau, aged 2 year 9 months, d. 24 Apr 1848
James MILLS from Redruth,
baby aged 6 weeks d. 28 Apr 1848
Mark ALLEN from
son aged 1 year 3 months, d. 30 Apr 1848
Henry SAMSON from Illogan,
dau aged 1 year 7 months d. 8 May 1848 and then
child stillborn d. 9 May 1848
young lady from
aged 21 years, d. 7 May 1848
Buckley BEVEAN from
dau aged 1 year 2 months, d. 27 May 1848
John DOIDGE from South
son aged 4 years, d. 25 Jun 1848
Henry SALT from
dau aged 1 year 9 months, d. 26 Jun 1848
William HANKER of
dau Jane Westminster Hanker d. 1 Jul 1848
Tristram ROWLAND of Camborne,
wife died d. 3 Jul 1848
The surgeon on board eventually diagnosed "MEASLES" as the reason behind all the children's deaths.
Mr Orchard, son of Joseph Orchard from Ponsanooth, cousin of the author, Joseph Orchard of Mawgan.
to James Julian of
J. Thomas (baker) of Wendron,
Edward Williams and his wife probably off the ship
The Orchard family in the memoirs of John Boaden
These notes that mention the ORCHARD family have been extracted from Memoirs of John BOADEN for me by Jane HASENBECK [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org] – May 2009
John BOADEN writes.
On Sunday November 2nd the first dissenting Sunday School was opened at the Garras Chapel, this was done almost entirely through the activity of Edward Oats Orchard who was learning the printing business at Helston, but remained on Sundays with his parents at Carrabone.
The congregation at Church was good, there was a large good Sunday School, Mrs Mann the Rector´s wife and his large family being very active. There was no public service at the Garras only Sunday evenings & fortnightly on Monday nights. The Church held no Sunday evening services, the Methodists attended the Church services, there was a Sunday afternoon service held in the Baptist Chapel, Rosevear.
I recollect that on Mawgan Feast Monday, Edward Oats Orchard and myself spent much of the night at Joseph Gilbert´s painting letters on a Recabite flag for the next days procession.
I well remember spending a Sunday at Carrabone with E.O.Orchard & his Helston friends, Richard Cunnack, Richard Woolcock and Thomas Hosking. Uncle Joseph Gilbert was there to tea, the rest to dinner and of course the head of the family William Orchard. The party was waited on by my late dear wife then a girl in her 17..
Thomas Hosking was the first Phonographer in this district, E.O.Orchard soon after learned it, and in the Spring of the following year was engaged by the inventor, Mr. Issac Pitman afterwards knighted, to go to his office at Bath where he printed various books, including `Paradise Lost´ part of the Bible and a periodical the organ of the movement, but he was not robust and I think had to come home to be nursed before he was there much over a year.
My contact with the Orchard family induced me to learn the new system which I did in 1845.
An apprentice at Carrabone, named Nicholas Keverne who had been instructed by E.O.Orchard being my teacher.
The Romance of my life
I sat in the gallery of the Garras Chapel opposite the seat of the Orchard family of Carrabone which consisted of three girls approaching womanhood, & two smaller ones & two brothers.
Their father was a local preacher, a man of great energy and one of the most intelligent men in the parish and took great pride in his family, he had given them for those days a good education, they were always neatly dressed and would be called a rather good looking and interesting lot of girls, it is not to be wondered at, that they should attract my notice, but the second daughter Eleanor Jane made by far the deepest impression on my mind, indeed her brighter eyes, cheerful countenance, and sweet voice and a certain undefinable something else soon won my affection without any effort on her part.
I succeeded occasionally in getting in her company. In Spring of 1843 finding she and little sister had gone to Trevassack, I went there and escorted them across the fields a nearer way home and might be forgiven if I stole the first kiss of love. On her way to Trevassack, she passed through a muddy gateway to Bejorrow Croft, their footprints were firmly imprinted and the dry weather rendered them firmly stamped for some time, I looked at those footprints almost as if they were sacred.
The same year I went after the Sunday evening service on Feast Day to Trelowarren Lodge by Relowas Gate then occupied by N. Kevern, with Eleanor Jane her Aunt Mary, Uncle Hannibal and his affianced (Miss Blewett) and their cousin Betsy Pentecost, it was enchanting times.
I also went to meet Elizabeth James and Eleanor Jane returning from
At the early part of 1844 E.J. not being much wanted at home, took a situation as Nursery maid at Capt Passinghams (Colonel´s son), near Falmouth. The master died very soon after she went there, she used to put the children almost daily to Swan Pool. Her father coming down, not liking her situation, took her home with him, forteting some wages, was there 11 weeks.
I was with a Helston party to Carabone in July 1844 before mentioned, the whole place had a charm for me, everything about the house and family was tasty and respectable and situated near the principal gate-way to Trelowarren it seemed to have a share in its aristrocratic importance. At that time Sir Richard was undisputedly `King of the district´.
Father was the son of William & Betsy Orchard, the
former having 3 brothers, Hannibal who was a successful seafaring man who resided at
Mother was the eldest daughter of John & Eleanor Oats, the Father came down as smith to Trelowarren and settled in St Martin
Green & bought a freehold properts, now 3 fields near
Mrs Oats was a Williams from Gweala…can.
They had one son called Edward Oats who died when he was about 21, and 5
daughters, the eldest Jane married William Orchard, Mary married Richard
Charles, a miller who once had Skyburriowe Mill and lived in the old mill house
William Orchard when a lad went to sea for a voyage or two, but his Mother could not rest for thedanger and he was apprenticed as a shoe maker to Ben Tonkin at St Martin where he got aquainted with his future wife and both went to Class meeting together about the year 1813, in ten years after they were married he had bought the leasehold of Carrabone from Edward Dale, he settled there and began a shoemaking business which grew to be a prosperous one, he usually had two apprentices, so he learnt a great many and they generally turned out well. He also had the 5 meadows and kept two cows. He began to preach about 1820, and to lead a Class 5 years after, but his active mind & superior intelligence drew upon him the opposition of those who envied him, which was strikingly manifested just after the Great Revival of 1839.
He was a member of Mawgan Sick Club which met at the public house, it was large and prosperous, had about 1400 pounds (money) in stock. A revision of its rules was deemed necessary, William Orchard was entrusted with getting it done, he employed T.H.Edwards a Conveyancer, but at a meeting of the club about this matter a very strong discussion arose, among others Mr Peter Andrew spoke excitedly. It ended in a Trial befor the Helston Magistrates, when William Orchard gave evidence, the opposite party said he had taken a false oath because he said he did not hear Mr Andrew say certain words, E.J. says that she remembers that word came to Carrabone before her Father arrived from Helston that he had taken a false oath. The calumny grew, the Wesleyan society which had just been so largly increased was greatly agitated and William Orchard was pained to see what he had worked so hard to accomplish, to a large extent destroyed. John Carlyon had been recently appointed a Leader, he left the chapel with most of his Class and joined the Baptists which had built a chapel at Rosevear about 1820. For the above reason they were flourishing when we came to Mawgan in 1840.
One beautiful Saturday evening in 1846 I walked home from Helston with William Orchard, with E.J. walking behind, he then told me this whole tale, the separation of 1835 scarcely affected the Mawgan society, Hugh Lyne only leaving.
The new chapel which William Orchard was the most active promoter was opened in November 1834, my dear wife and I were both present, but more trouble was in store for Mawgan Wesleyansand William Orchard in particular.
The teetotal zeal in Mawgan was rather opposed than helped by most of the ministers who frequently were not abstainers, this had increased for some time and culminated early in 1845 by a comparatively large number of members leaving the Garras society, which were joined by several who had a few years befoe seceded to the Baptists and joined a new church under the title of Teetotal Wesleyans.
The difficulty of managing a new connection was so great that in a few years they joined the Weslyan Methodist Association, now the Free Church. They stipulated in ding so that no preacher who was not an abstainer should occupy their pulpit, or any non abstainer be a member of their society.
The formost man in the Temperance Crusade
was Tobias Johns of
At this time her eldest sister Elizabeth
had gone to be a housemaid at Trelowarren, where she
remained till she went to
I had cause to be careful for Father´s suspicions were awakened and he was much offended on account of my youth, and also to my having a dressmaker not accustomed to farm work, so my interviews with my girl were the reverse of public, but as time went on became more frequent.
E.J´s eldest brother had been obliged to return from Bath two or three times, and it was feared that his health would not be able to stand a return to his old employment, this was a great disappointment to the family, he had received an expensive education for those days and seemed to be destined for success, but his repeated failures of health clouded the hopes, he thought the Australian climate would suit him, added to this his Father´s business had somewhat failed and the girls especially were a fine family for emigration.
eldest brother Joe (who had married a Bolitho)
who had emigrated from Ponsanooth to
This we thought, might afford a solution of our matrimonial difficulties as then the objection to age and the effects of time and other possible circumstances might open the way easily to our union.
The question of emigration was an exciting one at this
time and became much more so after gold discoveries in
Times were bad, corn ruinously low, without any prospect
of improvement & accounts from
One evening, I think, in first week of December I accompanied E.J. to Trelowarren, she was getting orders for work from the servants, when Clara hastily came up to tell her sister not to undertake to do anything, sailing orders had just arrived & the family would be leaving in about a fortnight.
Mr Orchard had a sale at a public house on the leasehold of Carrabone it was bought by Sir Richard Vyvyan. However there was a singing meeting held the night after the receipt of sailing orders, some singers from a distance attending. I think I saw E.J. every night till they left.
The night of leaving came, a great many people from
far & near came to say farewell, parties from
The ceaseless activity of the past fortnight had
resulted in all the luggage being packed and ready. Edward Oats had started in the morning for
On returning to Carrabone, we found a large number of people with a Prayer meeting being held in the kitchen, where those leaving and those remaining were commending each other to the care of their Heavenly Father.
Just after midnight Mr. Dunstone´s wain of Skyburriowe & A. Tripp´s van was loaded, one with boxes & the other members of the family & with the warmest well wishes & sorrow of their friends left Carrabone for ever, but they kept their spirits up well especially Mrs Orchard who was leaving her mother and a large circle of near relatives.
I went with E.J. to past Swing Gate on the way to nanseven where she got in the van, I wished them all farewell, Mrs Orchard saying ``John, I will get a leg of mutton for you when you arrive out to us``
I met William Orchard
& his brother
The emigrants proceeded to
They left for
My dear E.J. moved with
the rest of the inhabitants of
Her brother William was then in Melbourne & of course helped, he was working at boot-closing, her Father at the diggings was written to, he came to Melbourne & thence retuned to Adelaide.
held situations in two shops while there, drapery & millinery and left for
was engaged to Elizabeth Dunstone, Skyburriowe, when he left
Elizabeth & Clarinda were both married, I think, in less than 12 months form their arrival, the first to James Pappin who had preceded them about 2 years in the Colony, and John Trewennack from Mawgan who left about Michaelmas 1849.
On the last day of December 1854, my dear and faithful
intended left her parents & numerous relatives & sailed from
It is only since her death that I have realized the great sacrifice she made for me.
The vessel arrived at
James Boaden, who was then a schoolmaster at Purfleet
some miles up the river, was then telegraphed for, he at once came down as he
had promised me to do, and on the next day put her to
On the following week I went down again, we went to Redruth were E.J. had her likeness taken to send back by Fanny Moody´s Father.
During the harvest E.J. was at Skyburriowe and helped about the harvest sometimes rolling, sheaf carrying & spent the fall at St Martin, Helston and Maraion (Gwallon) but our courtship must come to an end so we decided it should do so on January 1st 1856.
Just before this date E.J. was pretty much at Mr Evans, Aunt Secombe was going to get the wedding dinner at Gwallon, we had a large hunting party in the Xmas, killed a hare that was sent on for the occasion.
The day came, when James Boaden & myself & William & his betrothed Susan Davies went to Helston in Polwin market cart, had our wedding breakfast at Mr Evans then to Wesleyan Chapel where the indesoluble knot was tyed by Rev Edward Watson.
by Jane HASENBECK – May 2009)
Letter - Eleanor Jane BOADEN (nee ORCHARD) - 1854
of Diary written by Eleanor Jane Orchard during her voyage to
Sunday 31st. Sick first day, passed Kangaroo Island, saw porpoises, the Murray eagle flew overhead and was seen drowning. 1st Dinner, ducks, fowls, mutton, pork, peas, variety of tarts, cheese and almonds, plums.
Next day, roast turkey, ducks, leg of mutton etc, puddings, tarts, raisins, almonds. Thought of home and the dear ones I left behind, thought of meeting my dear absent one the other side of this vast ocean, for whom I have and will endure trial if necessary. Oh, Thou who art Preserver of all mankind, enrich me with patience, defend and guide me by Thy will as angels do in Heaven.
The Captain; a St Ives man, 7 Cornish people passengers, 17 ladies and 10 gentlemen, plenty of good things to eat but contrary winds.
Captain read prayers and sang hymns in style. Supper cold plum pudding etc and
glass of neages. Near
Our passengers are all nice and highly respectable, I have not seen a card yet. We get some tunes every evening from the Cornish sailor on the violin. We play draughts, going 9 knots, fair wind, dressed for service, watched the tremendous waves till I was lost in thought, bidding my sister adieu, and all the rest of my dear relatives.
Dinner, salmon, roast turkey, ducks, leg of pork, tongue, boiled leg of mutton, plum pudding, tarts, cheese, almonds, variety of vegetables and sauces. Am low spirited, weather hot, dress light, trade winds, funny tales, riddles, “A penny for your thoughts” John and Betty said “The first is what we underfoot do tread, the second is what some do use for bread, the third is what we all do crave, the riddle tell me and your penny save, (mat-ri-mony). Why is a sweet at sea like a Dandy? Because there is a swell on board.
A lace mitten found and sold by auction. Mrs HEALEY owned it Mr ADAMS pet parrot was put up, Mrs HEALEY bought cage and all 5/-which they gave 5 guineas for 7 years since, but they would not really sell it for any amount. After this little game, dinner, after the honours of the table, a walk, weather delightful, going 10 knots.
Captain says we bid fair visit
At 9 we had breakfast, the Captain, and all but 4 passengers went on shore. I was pleased with the appearance of the island. I went first to Post office, then Church, had a fine organ. Was surprised to see such a fine church at St Helena, saw another church, saw people of every shade, white and black as we drove through the town, my attention was called to see 2 yellow girls smoking cigars, they looked shy, we smiled and they hid them under their dresses.
Went to Government House and was
introduced to Lady
We bid adieu to our kind friends and we went shopping which was a bit difficult, they had not a good supply of fancy or drapery goods. We went on board at 6. Went on shore after breakfast next day, the carriages were in waiting for us on the landing place, we started for Napoleon’s house and tomb, it was 9 miles, all winding round hills, the scenery was delightful, we visited the house first where Bonaparte resided, we then went to the fish pond and got a piece of bark, and thence to the house built for him and through his garden where we got some flowers, then did a little eating and drinking, fowl, chicken etc. We then went to the tomb in a beautiful retired spot, where Bonaparte’s remains lay. I have a piece of willow which hung over the tomb, we drove to town, different way, so that we drove all round the island, we then went on board.
I had shingles, in bed 3 days, heat
extreme. The Doctor very attentive indeed, and Captain very kind. The Steward
without exception the most kind hearted young man I ever came across. All attention
and comfort. I took 5 months to come to
Letter – William ORCHARD - 1876
son of William and Jane Orchard was born at Mawgan,
(Copy sent by Jane HASENBECK – May 2009)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
My dear Sister,
I promised to write you a very long letter on foolscap, but I may not write so long a one as I had intended, the reasons I have not written before are principally indolence, down heartedness and being so long isolated from my people that the natural ties of kindred are broken, hence forgetfulness, but I have made a start now, and hope I will be able to fill this sheet, it is not however very easy to write you a long letter, as about Melbourne and its people you will not feel interested and of Adelaide I know nothing neither good or for evil, especially the former, of the few intimate acquaintances you had in Melbourne I will tell you all I know about them. The NANCARROW family are all living in Ballarat, mining and very poor. Mr ROWSFOR their son-in-law died many years ago, after which his wife and her family soon found their former level, they are related I believe to one John KILTON, Vet, of Rosewan.
BRIDGES of Helston is a sort of
foreman in boot-making department at Pentridge Prison Stockade. James MOINS of Helston (of Godly books and
grindstone celebrity) is a money broker in
Tom COLWIN, the hatters son, does not live far from me, he is a miserably poor half loafer, half beggar, and I believe he is sickly and unable to work for his family of which I believe he has 8. Alfred his brother is a Draper’s Asst. at Dalesford, originally Jim CROW diggings. Old Mrs WENN of Manaccan, the old lady we used to go and see sometimes Sundays, is still alive, about 80 now, she was twice married, after her last husband died she went to live with her brother William CARLYON, who is a farmer in Kilmore. I called with my wife to see her when I came from N.Z. I walked boldly inside when I saw her sitting at the fire, I asked her if she knew me, she stared, and seemed alarmed, and said “No, I never saw you before” (and if you recollect, I lived with them when I first came to Melbourne). I asked her if she recollected 14 years before, a young man who had been travelling overland from Adelaide with cattle, washing his moleskin trousers there himself and waited till they were dry, who was going to the N.Z. diggings, fetched her a glass of beer from the hotel and had some apple pie. “Yes” she said “I remember the young man, but you are not he”. “Yes I said, I am the same”. “No” she said “that was William Orchard, but you are not he”. I protested however I was the same and told her about many people and places she knew, but still she said “No, you are another TICHBOURNE”, so when I found she would not believe, we laughed well and should have left, but the poor old woman got half convinced and said “Well, if you are the same William Orchard, perhaps you will have a drink of tea”, of which however we declined, and so ended the only interview I have had with the poor old woman who was such a friend to my fathers, as he dined there when he preached at Manaccan.
Of Tom ISLE and the DUNSTANS, I know nothing, have not heard of them for 20 years
Sandy BOADEN does not live far from me, he came and fetched my wife and self down to his home one Sunday some time since, he has 2 boys going to school, Sandy has some houses and other property about the Collingwood flat, and I believe does not need to work for his living.
We called to see one LAWREY who married one of the MARTINS at the Pond, he was away at the races. Mrs LAWRY sent for some beer, of which by the way she talked, she seemed to have had enough, she said she once saw in some paper about some ORCHARD having killed another in a fight, so she had made up her mind it was me, and that I had been hanged, such was the flattery heaped upon me by the ignoramus.
Young GRYLLS is practicing as a solicitor
There is one other individual I had
forgotten to tell you about, John JAMES, of course you will remember him, he
once lived with us in
don’t know if the foregoing is interesting or not, but I must write about
something. I promised to write a long letter and I will do so, and I will tell
you bye and bye about the many improvements in
You think no doubt, I should write about myself and my affairs, I can assure you I am a poor worthless creature, the least said about myself the best, any of my relations will give you my history in a very few words, it is a thing I dislike talking of, self. Many a long and truthful letter I have written of self, many of which you have heard read. I have long since given up letter writing for friendship sake, when absolutely required for business or other matters, I am always ready, this will partly account for my long delay in writing, downheartedness was another reason
I have been 12 months sick, and as far as I at present know, shall never get well any more, it is hard for me to think about that, but still I do often think so and I fret a great deal about it which makes me no better, but perhaps worse, when I came up from New Zealand which I had to do for my wife’s health. I started a business in Sandridge, but it did not turn out as I thought.
N.Z. where I was among a digging community, where coppers are not known and shillings and pounds plentiful, I did a good trade, and made money easily, but here where things are cut so fine, working and struggling against each other it is the very coppers themselves and the coppers people seem to grasp at as the profits, it seems strange you would get 30/- for an article in N.Z. (where I was) and you would only get 10/6 for the same here, the material costing the same in both places, your actual expenses the very same. Yet such is the case in the boot trade.
I gave up that business and took a
shop in Collingwood, that was worse still, then I took a situation, I had too
take charge of a machine room where 20 girls were employed at 50/- per week. I
was there 12 months and then caught a bad cold which settled on my lungs. I
have bronchitis, chronic dyspepsia etc, I have been to 3 doctors. I feel very
weak and fretting. I feel I have lost all the energy and pluck required to face
the turmoil of life, perhaps a change of climate,
first money I earned at it was in
My idea is to get as far away from old settled places as possible, follow up the new places where labour is well paid, of course provisions are high, but that does not make much difference. The first bar-maids at a new rush on the West Coast would get £10 per week after 2 or 3 months they will be reduced to £5, and at length to 50/- which is the present money paid to them in Hokitika.
tell you this, not that you care about bar-maids or their wages, but as an
Had I my health, I would not stay in
I find in again referring to your letter, there is not much to reply to and yet there is a very great deal. If I answer your almost only question in you letter, you ask what my prospects are at present, for time and eternity. I have endeavourer to explain to you that my earthly prospects are very bad through sickness, but for Eternity, Ah.
What can I say of that? They are worse indeed than the other, I feel myself quite unable to speak on the subject not but that I think of it daily. I have never been in a place of worship since I was sick, whether I am more sinful for that I know not, I cannot go out in the night air and keep myself indoors all I can. Have you read Harriet Beecher Stowes ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’, there is a great similarity between the character of St Clare as there depicted and mine, he was up to Heaven’s gate in theory and down to the Earth’s dust in practice, so it is and ever has been with me, but that does not keep me from thinking of my Creator.
have never been converted which I suppose means becoming a believer in Christ, but
in all my travels through life I have trusted to the Almighty Being to give me
those blessings we require, I have been ever grateful for them, and I pray to
Him to continue to favour us with those blessings He has never with-held them
from me. I have always earnestly and zealously trusted in a Divine Providence,
there is something in our nature that tells us we are powerless without Divine
aid. I have said to my wife, perhaps thousands of times, “Trust to
One day however, I found myself in the Bush, 400 miles north of Adelaide, I went down to the nearest station to get letters for camp, one was for me, it told me of my Mothers death. (Jane Orchard died 27th June 1861 aged 61 years.) I did not cry, my very breath stopped, half of my existence seemed to have left me, that great interceder seemed to have deserted me. God heard not unrighteous prayer, who would pray for me now, such were the thoughts that for a few moments staggered me, Well not long after then, we penetrated the country north, beyond the settled districts, and one of the horses going astray, I went in search of it, but at nightfall I found I had lost myself. I did not lie down as a good bushman would and track himself back on the morrow. I was on horseback but continued to wander about all night in hopes of seeing the camp fire, but daylight found me and the poor horse knocked up without the slightest idea of where I was or which way to go, it was then I realized the fact that I was actually lost in the waterless north and this in the middle of summer with the scorching sun overhead, no shade, no trees in that country, one endless plain, 70 miles from water to water and then you must know which way to take to get there. This I did not know, so sucking a pebble I wandered about the second day, on the third day I got back to the last of the hills called ‘Termination Hill’ that being the last from Adelaide which just out on the great plains which extend from there to the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Those hills gave me hopes of finding water.
Towards evening of the third day, walking and leading poor ‘walkaway’ so called
for rambling, by the bridle, I came upon a track that had been made by cattle .
I followed it to the hills and long after dark from the bellowing of cattle
found the watering place, but there was only one water hole and in it were
scores of cattle, bellowing and splashing about, while all around were scores
of dead cattle, neither myself or horse could drink, the water was thick black
mud. I left poor ‘walkaway’ by the water and I went down the dry shingle bed of
the creek (Monday Creek) looking for some water hole or some living being. I
called in vain, I came back disheartened and gave up all hopes of seeing a
human being again. I laid the saddle upside down on the stones with my head in
it as a pillow I slept the sleep of the innocent. Daylight, fourth day brought
the view of dead cattle galore and wild dogs eating at the carcasses, live
cattle in the puddle hole as before, no vegetation about except a little salt
bush, no hut, nothing to be seen, I searched for hours, could find nothing.
About noon I thought I would go to the highest hill to see if I could see
anything, but I could not, it was then I fell on my knees on that hill and
prayed earnestly for myself and called on my Mother who was dead to be my
Guardian Angel still and intercede for me, was it faith, or was it that made my
heart so light as I walked down the hill, I was saved from that horrible death,
death from thirst, hunger is nothing, few have found their tongue dry and
sticking to the roof of their mouth from hunger. I have more than once in the
Dear Sister, I can say nothing of Eternity, it is a subject upon which I do not have power to concentrate my thoughts, it is a subject too great for me. I fear with all my faith I am a long way from what I should be, but again I say, I shall trust in Him that He will make all things clear to me, and may we dear sister, be more united when we enter upon that Eternity than we have been during our earthly stay.
This sheet is so near done, give our love to John and all your children. Thanks for likeness. My wife shall have hers taken and send you. I will write you on some other subjects next time. I don’t know if you have patience to read this, but have written it through without stopping. With love to you all
Your affectionate brother an sister
(signed) William and Sarah Orchard