orchard.doc                                                                                                           6 Jul 2009




Joseph Orchard was baptised on the 20th of February 1800, the second son of the many children of William and Elizabeth (Betty) Orchard of Mawgan‑in‑Meneage, Helston, Cornwall.  This hamlet on the Southern Coast of Cornwall was the birthplace of many generations of the Orchard family dating back to around 1712

                        Philip Orchard married Mary around 1712

            Philip was baptised 10th May 1719, son of Philip and Mary.

                        Philip Orchard married Mary TREWREN around 1738

            Joseph was baptised 6th January 1752, son of Philip and Mary

                        Joseph Orchard married Prudence ROGERS around 1770

            William was baptised 27 April 1773, son of Joseph and Prudence

                        William Orchard married Elizabeth (Betty) COOKE around 1796,

                                    the eldest daughter of Thomas and Jane Cooke.



William ORCHARD and Betty COOKE's known family of six children were all born and baptised in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage, and included:‑


     William Orchard baptised 28th January 1798

     Joseph Orchard baptised 20th February 1800

     Elizabeth Orchard baptised 13th June 1802

     Mary Orchard baptised 5th April 1812

     Jane Orchard baptised 13th March 1814

     Hannibal Orchard baptised 9th April 1819


        The Church of Mawgan-in-Meneage


Joseph grew up in Mawgan and learned the trade of a pavior, the layer of flat paving stones. Around 1828 he married Elizabeth Bolitho, baptised 11th June 1808, one of the very large family of children of John and Mary Bolitho of Mawgan. The first four of their children were all born in Mawgan, showing that was their residence, however when young Joseph (junior) was born in 1838 they were living in Ponsanooth with Joseph (senior) working as a thatcher.   At the age of 48 he decided that his family had more chance to flourish away from the small rural Cornish towns, and taking his wife Elizabeth (nee Bolitho) and his children sailed for Australia.  The children were

            John Orchard, born about 1828

            Elizabeth Orchard bapt 4th July 1830 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage

            Mary Orchard baptised 8th April 1832 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage

            Susan Orchard baptised 8th June 1834 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage

            Joseph Orchard born 12th November 1838 and baptised 20th April 1839 in Stithians

Thus the family of seven included two near adult children, two teenage girls, and the younger eight year old Joseph (junior).  Another elder sister Emily Orchard married to Hannabel Williams and was believed  to also emmigrate for South Australia (but not necessarily on the same ship).


The "Westminster" sailed on the 20th of March 1848 and through the four month voyage Joseph kept a diary of the journey, noting the weather conditions, the ships progress, the seven births and twelve deaths aboard as measles slew many of the young children of the emmigrant passengers. In the crossing of the Bay of Biscay they lost many of their masts and rigging which then took over a week en route to repair by passengers and crew. 


On arrival at Adelaide on 19th July 1848 he was met at the wharf by Mr Orchard, the son of another Joseph Orchard, his cousin from Ponsanooth. This was Joseph Ellis Orchard who had earlier arrived on 27th January 1848 in the “Success” with his wife Elizabeth Ann (nee Richards) and two children; Joseph John (1845‑) and Elizabeth Ann (1847‑).  So there were two Joseph (seniors) and two Joseph (juniors) from the same area of Cornwall, so it is lucky that Joseph Ellis Orchard moved to Chewton, Victoria to be joined by his brother where they had very large families.


Joseph's diary of the voyage and further family details were contained in the letter sent by Joseph Orchard to his father, brothers and sisters in Cornwall, imploring them to join him in the wonderful new land, full of opportunity.  The original of this letter is now in the Museum in Helston, Cornwall.


On arrival on board the "Westminster" Joseph Orchard (senior) made arrangements for his family to live in two rooms which he called "huts" at 8/‑ per week, houses being very scarce in early Adelaide.  His boxes of goods cost him 7/‑ to be transported from Port Adelaide to this location, which was most likely in Queen Street, where they lived for a few years until moving to Angas Street. 


He took on any labouring jobs he could find for himself and his eldest son John.  For John, he found tree clearing at the rate of 4/‑ plus two pints of beer per day.  Joseph himself started at road paving for 24/‑ per week. His eldest daughter Elizabeth began as a child's maid and then a cook for just over  15 pounds per year.  Of their two teenage daughters, Susan was a  maid in a large house and Mary was a child minder.  Young eight year old Joseph in his few first weeks in the Colony was shoe shining and boot cleaning at a house for 1/6 per week, but then was sent to school.  Another daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth, Emily arrived in South Australia (with them?) and was married to Hannible Williams also of Cornwall. 


In the "Local Intelligence" of Adelaide's “Register” newspaper, the family first comes to notice with an early medical operation, which must have been quite ‘a first’ in Adelaide in January 1850.


The operation of removing a cancer was skillfully performed by Dr. Smith, in the presence of Dr. Nash and several others of the faculty,  at the hospital, on Thursday last.  The patient,  Mrs. Elizabeth Orchard, wife of Joseph Orchard,  Queen Street, Adelaide, was first taken ill with it about ten weeks ago, from which time it increased in size with extraordinary rapidity.  At the suggestion of Dr. Smith, she went into the hospital on Wednesday last, and underwent the operation with remarkable fortitude.  The whole of the breast was taken away, and two large lumps cut from under the arm;  which was done while under the influence of chloroform. After the operation, she walked, almost unassisted, to another part of the hospital, and all throughout exhibited an unusual degree of courage.  We are happy to say that the operation is likely to be completely successful; for, although weakened and has no appetite, in other respects she is doing well.


The operation was quite a success for she lived for another 20 years to raise her family in Adelaide.


One Joseph Orchard, gentleman, is listed as making the return crossing from Launceston, Tasmania  back to Adelaide in South Australia. He arrived on 21st May 1850 on the 145 ton coastal brig “Peri” with Captain Winsborrow as its master. There was no family accompanying  him on this trip, so he was probably on a business trip or visiting relatives in Tasmania.  Three families of William Orchards are found in Tasmania around this period (or father and son with multiple marriages)


After taking labouring jobs around Adelaide for several years, Joseph Orchard built the "Seven Stars Hotel" at 191 Angas Street, Adelaide on Town Acres 419.  His initials "J.O. 1855" are built into the stonework facing the street.  He was the original licensee from 1855 to 1864, and the hotel was then operated by Joseph Orchard (junior) with H. F.Grewatsch in partnership from 1864 to 1872.  Joseph (senior) had probably retired in favour of his son.


The ‘Seven Stars Hotel’ according to the "Book of Hotels" was run by other Orchards at later times.  From 1873 to 1879 James (? or Joseph) Orchard was licensee.  In 1894 the licensee was J Orchard, which was Joseph (junior) again aged about 54, and by this time would have been living in Orange Grove.  The hotel appears on National Trust Recorded List #1140


Elizabeth Orchard, the wife of Joseph (senior), despite the breast operation in 1850 survived until 8th May 1870, when she died of heart disease at their residence in Angas Street, Adelaide, and was buried in West Terrace Cemetery, aged 61 years.  Joseph Orchard (senior) was a ‘pavior’, a stonemason specialising in laying flat surface pavement, living in Angas Street, Adelaide when he died of Bronchitis on the 11th of September 1871, aged 71, and was also buried in West Terrace Cemetery. 


Of the children of Joseph (senior) and Elizabeth (Bolitho)

John Orchard of Queen Street died on the 29th July 1850. as a Policeman two years after arriving

Elizabeth Orchard married John ADAMSON and died of Consumption on 27th February 1870 at her residence in Gilles Street Adelaide, aged just 39 years.

Susan Orchard of Angas Street died on 1st March 1855, aged just 21 years.  She was unmarried.

Mary Orchard married on 15th July 1863 at Christchurch, North Adelaide, to Anson WARNKEN, a butcher of Freeman Street, Adelaide.

Joseph Orchard (junior), the youngest and my ancestor carried on the family name in Adelaide. He has the most details known about him.



Joseph Orchard (junior) had been born on the 20th April 1839 in Cornwall. He married at the age of 24, on the 5th March 1864 in St Michael's Church, Mitcham, by special licence to Eleanor Jane Williams, the 23 year old eldest daughter of Mr John Williams of Coromandel Valley. Eleanor's residence at the time was the Coromandel Valley, and her sister Thomasina Williams of Norwood was one of the witnesses to the marriage.


Eleanor Jane Williams was born on the 28th of August 1840 and with her sister Thomasina Williams had probably arrived as assisted female immigrants around the mid 1850's.  Thomasina Williams married John Williams on the 21st of November 1867, but she died of Peritonitis on the 14th of January 1873, aged 32, at Brownhill Creek.


Joseph Orchard (junior) and Eleanor Jane Williams had a family of nine children born in Adelaide

            Elizabeth Ellen Orchard born 8th December 1864 (died 22 Dec 1864)

            Joseph Orchard born 14th December 1865  (died 9 Jan 1866)

            Susan Elizabeth Orchard born 17th May 1867 (died 26 Nov 1951)

            Eleanor Jane Orchard born 27th April 1869 (died 24 Jun 1964)

            Joseph John Orchard born 5th July 1870  (died 27 Jan 1871)

            Alice Orchard born 15th August 1872      

            Joseph Albert Orchard born 27th September 1872 (died 19 Jun 1874)

            Ethel Orchard born 5th October 1874

            Florence Orchard born November 1877 (died 3 Dec 1877)

however only four girls survived infancy.


When Joseph married Eleanor in 1864 he was a farmer residing in Adelaide, and when their third child Susan was born in 1867, Joseph was then an innkeeper of Adelaide ‑ the "Seven Stars Hotel", where he was licensee from 1864 to 1872.  The farm was out at Magill, about 8 kilometres East of Adelaide, and the family shared their time between the farm and the Angas Street residence.  From the “Observer” newspaper of 14th February 1874


Capsise at Norwood ‑ Mrs. Orchard, of Angas Street, and some of her children were being driven through Norwood on Thursday, returning from their farm at Magill, when on turning a corner at the Old Colonist Inn the driver capsised the vehicle.  We are glad, however, to be able to say though bruised none of the passengers had any bones broken.


Twenty three years later when Susan married, her father Joseph was a farmer of Baroota, in the Mid North of the State, with the marriage ceremony being performed at the farmhouse.


Joseph and Eleanor Jane built a large house in Mitcham surrounded by a lovely orange garden, and named it Orange Grove.  The old home is possibly still there but the grove is now developed as a housing estate.  They lived for some years in this home. Joseph Orchard was a retired gentleman when his wife Eleanor died at the age of 59 years at their residence in Orange Grove, Mitcham on the 10th July 1900.  He survived her for just nine months.  He died on the 11th of March 1901, aged 61 years, also at Orange Grove.


Of the four daughters of Joseph and Eleanor Jane (Williams) who reached adulthood the following is known:‑


·        Susan Elizabeth Orchard married on the 25th March 1890 at Baroota to William John KITTO (21st September 1857 ‑ 29 September 1926) and they raised a family of six children in Adelaide. One  of these children was my maternal grandfather, Joseph Kitto.


·        Eleanor Jane Orchard married on the 12th March 1889 in S.A. to Adolph Whilhelm Ferdinand EY (7th March 1864 ‑ 20 April 1913, son of J. Wilhelm Ferdinand EY and Clara Julia TRAPMANN)  and they had eight children. Adolph was a surveyor and District Clerk of Melrose, SA.


·        Alice Orchard married in 1904 to Charles Edward (Ed) WALTERS, who was a tailor in Rundle Street, Adelaide.


·        Ethel Orchard married in SA. in 1898 to George John OWENS of Gladstone, SA. however their family has yet to be located.



“William Orchard when a lad went to sea for a voyage or two, but his Mother could not rest for thedanger and he was apprenticed as a shoe maker to Ben Tonkin at St Martin where he got aquainted with his future wife and both went to Class meeting together about the year 1813, in ten years after they were married he had bought the leasehold of Carrabone from Edward Dale, he settled there and began a shoemaking business which grew to be a prosperous one, he usually had two apprentices, so he learnt a great many and they generally turned out well.  He also had the 5 meadows and kept two cows.  He began to preach about 1820, and to lead a Class 5 years after, but his active mind and superior intelligence drew upon him the opposition of those who envied him, which was strikingly manifested just after the Great Revival of 1839”. (from Boaden’s Memoirs)


In response to the urgings in Joseph's letter for his brothers to join him, he was first followed to South Australia by his older brother, William Orchard (28th January 1798 ‑ 22nd May 1869), who arrived in 1850 on the "Trafalgar".  William was accompanied by his wife Jane nee Oates (c1797 ‑ 27th June 1861), two sons and four daughters, including


·        Edward Oates Orchard was baptised on the 2nd February 1824 Helston and died in 1852, aged 28 years, in Collingwood, Vic.


·        Elizabeth Orchard was baptised on the 25th April 1825 Helston‑Wesleyan and died on the 25th October 1887 in S.A., aged 62 years. Elizabeth had  married around 1850 to the emmigrant blacksmith James PAPPIN (1825 ‑ 9th February 1901) who arrived in 1849 on the "David Malcolm" and they raised five children in Kensington, S.A.


·        Eleanor Jane Orchard was baptised on the 30th December 1827 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage.  She  returned (her diary) to Cornwall to marry John BOADEN (his diary). They raised ten children.


·        Clarinda Orchard was born on the 30th December 1830 and baptised on the 8th February 1830 in Mawgan-in-Meneage.  Clarinda was married quite soon after arrival, on the 1st January 1851 to yet another Cornish immigrant, also from Mawgan‑in‑Meneage, John TREWENACK (26th April 1829‑1891) who had arrived on “Henry Lorequer” in 1849, and they raised a family of six in Port Augusta and Kent Town. John was a blacksmith of Wyatt Street Adelaide, then worked in connection with the mines at Wallaroo and Port Augusta.  They retired to Norwood.  John and Clarinda were both lost at sea, drowned through the sinking of the passenger steamer “SS Gambier” on the 28th August 1891 when, in collision with the steamer “SS Easby”, 23 lives were lost in that most dangerous channel of “The Port Phillip Heads” near Queenscliffe, Victoria. The “Gambier” sank in seven minutes. They had been visiting two of their grown children in Sydney. One of their children, Hester Anne, married a second cousin, William Blewett Orchard, the son of Hannibal and Mary (nee Blewett).


·        William Orchard was baptised on the 12th October 1834 Mawgan‑in‑Meneage. He married Sarah and died in Australia sometime after 1876. (his letter)


·        Hester Ann Orchard was baptised on the 25th December 1836 Mawgan‑in‑Meneage and died in Pirie Street, Adelaide on the 19th March 1851, aged 14 years.  Hester doesn't appear on the "Trafalgar" passenger list but there were two Elizabeths so perhaps this is a recording error by the shipping clerk, or a transcript error from the original list.


The family had sailed from Cornwall, arriving in 1850 and settled in Adelaide and later Norwood.  William was a shoemaker.  He died in Norwood at the ripe old age of 72 years on the 22nd May 1869, and is buried in West Terrace Cemetery.  He had survived his wife Jane who passed away in Adelaide on the 27th June 1861.  She is also buried in West Terrace Cemetery.



In 1850, Joseph's younger brother Hannibal Orchard (9 Apr 1819 ‑ 6 Apr 1886) followed to South Australia with his wife Mary nee  Blewett (c1825‑), and two daughters, on the sailing ship "Fatima".  Their family increased in South Australia to include:-


·        Susan Jane Orchard was born about 1847 in Cornwall and died on the 5th June 1927 at Lyndoch, SA.  Susan married on the 3rd October 1867 at the St Georges Church in Gawler to George Vosper BASSETT, a carrier and farmer of Gawler, and they raised a family in Bassett Town, SA.


·        Elizabeth Orchard was born about 1849 in Cornwall, and was the youngest of the family to arrive on theFatima”. Her whereabouts have yet to be found.


·        William Blewett Orchard was born on the 26th April 1851 in SA.  He married his second cousin Hester Ann TREWENACK in Moonta Mines on the 27th November 1873.  They moved to Sydney


·        Mary Blewett Orchard was born on the 24th April 1855 in SA, and died at Fullarton, SA on the 30th October 1941.  She married in Redruth, SA. on the 26th March 1878 to William Grieg EVANS (9th December 1847 - 5th February 1934).  William was born in Yorkshire, arrived on “HMS Hercules” in 1853 and became a government surveyor who surveyed throughout the West of SA.  ‘Snave Hill’ on Wilpena Pound was named from a reversed Evans, ‘Fred’s Knob’ was named after Fred Orchard, and there are other recognisable names there as well.  William and Mary Evans raised a family of seven children.


·        Martha Ann Blewett Orchard was born on the 11th October 1859.


·        Hannibal Orchard was born on the 24th October 1861  (died very young)


·        Hannibal Blewett Orchard was born on the 21st December 1862, (died 1886, aged 23)


·        Frederick Joseph Orchard was born on the 29th January 1865, (died 14 Oct 1924,age 56)


·        Walter John Orchard was born on the 24th July 1867, (died 1868, aged 1 year)


Hannibal Orchard and his family settled in Aberdeen and then in South Gawler, with Hannibal working as a labourer and later as a publican until his death in Gawler on 6th January 1886, aged 67. 



Joseph Orchard (the cousin) was born in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage on 3rd November 1799, to Joseph (second son of Joseph and Prudence Rogers of Mawgan) and Ann CURNOW.  With Joseph (my ancestor) born 20th February 1800 to William (first son of Joseph and Prudence Rogers) and Betty COOKE,  this meant there was just three months age difference between the two young cousins named Joseph Orchard.  The two families lived together in Mawgan with the two Josephs growing up together as almost twins but both with the same name.  Both married around 1825 and had their first few children all in Mawgan, and each had their last born in Ponsanooth where both had moved around  1838/1839.


Joseph (the cousin) married Mary Ellis around 1824 and all but their youngest were baptised in Mawgan-in-Meneage.  Their children are as follows:‑


·        Joseph Ellis Orchard was born in Poundsworth on the 19th September 1825 and baptised on the 30th Octrober 1825 (died 1893 Chewton, Vic)


·        Mary Anna Orchard was baptised on the 25th June 1829


·        William Henry Orchard was baptised on the 10th June 1832 (died about 1833 Mawgan, Con)


·        William Henry Orchard was baptised on the 20th August 1837 (died 1901 Prahan, Vic)


·        John Orchard was baptised on the 25th August 1839 Madron, Con. (died 1859 Melbourne, Vic)


With John being born in Madron, near Penzance, it indicates that the family moved there around 1838.


The family arrived in Adelaide on the “Success” on 27th January 1848, and it was Joseph Ellis Orchard who met my own ancestor Joseph on the "Westminster" when it arrived in Port Adelaide in 1848.  The father Joseph senior (the cousin) died in Victoria in 1871,  aged 71 just like his almost twin in South Australian,  but the death of his wife, Mary (nee Ellis) has not been found yet.  The adult sons of Joseph (the cousin) all eventually joined him in the Victorian Gold Fields, and spread throughout Victoria from there.  These sons were:-


Joseph Ellis Orchard

The eldest son Joseph Ellis Orchard married in Madron on the 21st December 1844 to Elizabeth Ann RICHARDS, born about 1826 in Church Town (ie Madron),  the daughter of William and Elizabeth (nee SHEPPARD). Their first two children were born in Madron, but then they emigrated to South Australia in about 1848. The next three children were born in Adelaide and then the family moved to Victoria around 1855, first to Forest Creek where the gold rushes were, and then to Chewton, near Castlemaine, where they eventually settled.  They added a further four children born in Victoria.  The next generation also had large families,  so there are a massive number of descendents of this family, mainly in Victoria.  The family is as follows :‑


·        Joseph John Orchard was baptised on the 13th April 1845 Madron, Cornwall, married in Victoria in 1866 to Mary PETTY (1845-1917), daughter of John and Hannah (nee Tucker).  They had eleven children in Chewton and Sandhurst, and J.J. died in 1900 at Bendigo, Victoria, aged 55 years


·        Elizabeth Ann Wright Orchard was baptised on the 1st August 1847 in Madron, Cornwall and married in 1866 to Alfred WALLIS.  There were twelve children.


·        William Henry Orchard was born in South Australia in October 1849 and died as an infant on the 8th April 1851 in Alberton, SA.


·        Sarah Jane Orchard was born on the 13th November 1851 in Adelaide, SA, and married in Victoria in 1872 to William CROWDER,  and there were nine children born in and around Castlemaine, Vic.


·        Matilda Richards Orchard was born on the 13th June 1854 in Adelaide, SA. and married in Victoria in 1877 to John Henry BEAR,  and there were six children born in Ballarat, Vic.


·        William Henry Orchard was born in 1858 in Forest Creek, Vic. and married in 1879 in Chewton to Elizabeth Jane TREMBATH (1858-1928),  daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (nee Richards).  They had six children all born in Chewton.  Both Elizabeth Jane and William Henry died in Castlemaine, Victoria,  in 1928 and 1938 respectively.


·        Thomas Francis Orchard was born in 1860 in Forest Creek, Victoria, married in 1888 in Chewton, Victoria, to Ellen PICKUP (1866-1928), daughter of George and Mary Ann (nee Consaltine).  They had six children all born in Northcote, Victoria.  Thomas died in Preston, Victoria in 1938.  Ellen had died there in 1928.


·        John Ellis Orchard was born in Chewton about 1864.  He worked at the GPO, Melbourne and was killed in an accident at Clifton Hill on the 24th February 1887.  He was buried in Chewton aged just 22 years.  He never married.


·        Mary Agnes Orchard was born in Chewton, Victoria in 1868 and married in.1889 in Chewton, Victoria, to James John Percival GARRETT.  Their residence was “Keeyugo” at 17 Lawrence Street,  Brunswick, Vic and they had four children.


The parents of this family lived in Chewton until Joseph Ellis Orchard died on 6th March 1893, aged 67 years.  His wife Elizabeth Ann (nee Richards) died on 6th September 1914 aged 88 years, in Brunswick East, Victoria, at the  house of Mary Garrett, one of her many children.  Both are buried in Chewton Cemetery.


William Henry Orchard

The second surviving son of Joseph (the cousin) was William Henry Orchard who is first seen in the gold rush areas of Victoria in 1858 with his marriage to Catherine PRENDERGAST, born c1840. They had a very large family in Victoria as follows :‑


·        John Ellis Orchard, the first of the family, was born in 1860 in Forest Creek, Vic. but died as an infant in 1861 also in Forest Creek, Victoria.


·        Mary Catherine Orchard was born in 1862 in Daylesford, Vic. and married in 1884 to William Charles YARWOOD of Castlemaine.  There are at least two children


·        Elizabeth Ann Orchard was born in 1864 in Daylesford, Vic. and married m. 1887 Vic to John COCKREILL of Collingwwood.


·        Louisa Ellen Orchard was born in 1866 in Daylesford, Vic.


·        William Henry Orchard was born in 1869 in Chewton, Vic. and married in 1890 in Victoria to Agnes Jane THOMPSON.  William died in Kensington, Vic.in 1917 aged 48 years, and there were 7 children.


·        Albert Jeffrey Orchard was born inn 1873 in Nerring, Vic.


·        John Ellis Orchard was born in 1875 in Nerring, Vic. and died in 1895, aged 20 years, at Mildura, Vic.  He was unmarried.


·        Arthur Ernest Orchard was born in 1879 in Eaglehawk , Vic.


Through the birth places of the children it seems William Henry came to Victoria around the same time his brother Joseph Ellis Orchard moved from South Australia ‑ about 1855 to join the gold rushes.  They stayed in Forest Creek until 1861 whereupon they moved to settle in Daylesford until around 1867.  One child was born in Chewton in 1869 though this seems to be in transition, probably visiting with his brother's family.  Their residence became Nerring until 1875 when they moved to Eaglehawk, near Bendigo.


William Henry Orchard died in 1901 in Prahan, Vic four years after his wife Catherine (nee Prendergast) who died in 1897 in Victoria.


John Orchard

The third and final surviving son and brother to Joseph Ellis and William Henry Orchard also arrived in Victoria around the gold rushes, however this John Orchard, the youngest of Joseph (the cousin) and Mary (nee Ellis) died young in Melbourne in 1859 at the age of just 20 years.  He never married.





There is a third family of cousins to both my Joseph and his cousin Joseph.  An uncle of theirs, Philip was baptised in Mawgan-in-Meneage on 1st March 1778, the third son of Joseph and Prudence (nee Rogers).  He married 24th July 1798 in Mawgan to Jane HITCHENS and they had four children.  Two of these children have connections in Australia.


Jane Orchard

Jane was born in that same period of time in Mawgan-in-Meneage that produced the two Josephs.  She was baptised on the 13th January 1799, and married at the age of 22 years in 1821 to James ROWE (1793-1863), son of James and Grace (nee Rawling).  James was a tin miner living at Goonhilly Downes at the time of their marriage, and Jane’s home was at Grade, near Mawgan.  They had eight children, the first being born at Mawgan and then seven others were born at Camborne where they lived then.  Both Jane and James died in England, Jane at Camborne in Cornwall on 22nd February 1853 and James at Islington in Devon in 1863, but by 1861 all surviving male children and there were five of them, had emmigrted to Australia, mainly to Fryerstown, Victoria.


With some born in England and some in Australia, they usually had large families:-  James (1821-1879) had 12 children,  Philip (1825-1878) had no children,  John (1828-1887) had 13 children,  Edward (1831-1910) had 11 children and Hannibal (1837-1898) had 7 children.  Since these are Rowe children I will not detail these cousin’s children who spread out from Fryerstown in Victoria.


John Orchard

Philip and Jane (nee Hitchens) had a son John baptised 12th June 1803 in Mawgan‑in‑Meneage.  John married around 1825 to Jane BOLITHO, possibly a sister to my Joseph's wife Elizabeth (nee Bolitho).  Their children were Jane (1827‑), John (1829‑), William Hitchings (1831‑), Avis (1834‑), Philip (1836‑1907), Elizabeth (1839‑), and probably Hanible (1842‑1920).  Two of these sons apparently arrived in Victoria


Philip Orchard was baptised on 19th June 1836 in St Kevern, near Mawgan, and in 1860 was married in Victoria to Mary Brookfield, born c1834 to Richard and Catherine.  There were no children born in Victoria.   Mary died in 1902, aged 68 years, and Philip died in 1907, aged 73 years, both in Omeo in the Great Dividing Range area of Central Eastern Victoria.


Hanible Orchard was born about 1842 in Cornwall and married on 17th March 1868 at Beechworth to Margaret Donellan.  At the time Hanible was a 26 year old miner of Horse's Creek, with his origins as John Orchard, carpenter of Cornwall and Jane Brithno (sic).  Margaret was a 21 year old servant of Silver Creek, whose parents were James, a labourer of Clare, Ireland and Bridget (nee Molony).  Their many children were born near Bendigo and included :‑

            Elizabeth Ann Orchard born 1868 Growler's Creek, Vic

            Philip Orchard born 1870 Growler's Creek, Vic

            Henry Orchard born 1871 Growler's Creek, Vic

            Margaret Mary Orchard born 1873 Growler's Creek, Vic

            Jane Orchard born 1874 Growler's Creek, Vic

            Minnie Orchard born 1876 died an infant 1877 Wandiligong, Vic

            William James Orchard born 1877 Wandiligong, Vic

            John Francis Orchard born 1879 Wandiligong, Vic

            Catherine May Orchard born 1883 Growler's Creek, Vic (died young in 1888, aged 5 years,                at Wandiligong, Vic)

            Frederick Orchard born 1884 Growler's Creek, Vic.


Margaret died in 1899, aged 52 years at Wandiligong, between Mount Buffalo and Mount Beauty in the high plains region of Eastern Victoria and Hanible died in 1920 at North Fitzroy, Vic, at the age of 78 years.




There follows a collection of random correspondences from members of the family.


Letter - Joseph ORCHARD, South Australia – 1848    [link]

            Joseph wrote to his father and brothers encouraging them to join him in Adelaide


Diary - John BOADEN’s memoirs mentions the Orchard family – 1841 to 1856                [link]

These notes that mention the ORCHARD family have been extracted from the Memoirs           


Letter - Eleanor Jane BOADEN (nee ORCHARD) – 1854          [link]

            Eleanor wrote of her sea voyage returning to Engalnd to marry John BOADEN


Letter – William ORCHARD – 1876                [link]

            William wrote to his sister Eleanor Jane BOADEN in England.


Letter from Joseph Orchard, SOUTH AUSTRALIA - 1848


Adelaide July 1848

Dear Father, Brothers and Sisters, and all enquiring friends


I now have the pleasure of writing you, hoping to find you in good health as this leaves us, thank God for it.


On Saturday the 18th [March] we left the Depot at Plymouth and went on board the "Westminster", leaving our friends and the land of our nativity never expecting to see either any more in time.  It truly was a great undertaking.  We were situated in the vessel as well as we could reasonably expect, and in the middle part of the ship.  Our provisions were still very good.  Our bedding was of the same description as at the Depot, with this difference, it was new and consequently better adapted to sleep on. 


On 20th March we weighed anchor about 6 in the evening.  A fair breeze for about two or three hours, then the wind changed to almost an opposite direction, and blew strong, so that we were tossed about a great deal, and I believe most of us lay sleepless the greater part of the night, momentarily expecting to go to the bottom.  But the same God who ruleth the heavens and the earth hath the command of the sea also; and I had reason to believe that several of our little company could trust in Him.


The next day the wind was not so high, but the sea was very rough and nearly all the emigrants were very sick.  The following night the wind blew very strong again, but we were not so much alarmed, although we found it difficult to keep ourselves in bed for the rolling of the ship.  The next day we had it more calm and remained so until Sunday 26th;  but the wind being contrary the greater part of the time, we did not make that progress in the voyage which we wished to do.  On the night of the 26th we were visited again with a gale of a wind, which alarmed us a great deal; the night was truly a restless one. 


On Monday morning following, about a quarter past seven, during a heavy squall, and the vessel pitching with great force, the fore top gallant mast, together with the fore top gallant yard jib- boom and flying jib-boom and dolphin-striker, main royal mast, and main top gallant mast  were  carried away!!! our ship carpenter being in bed at the time.  Shortly after, however, the weather became more favourable, and the emigrants rendered themselves generally useful in gathering in the broken parts of the ship; assisting in getting the mast right again etc, (We lost our mast on the coast of the Bay of Biscay) so that by Thursday    week after we were just to rights again.


I myself was helping about planing.  The Captain was a ship- carpenter himself, and he worked like another man about the repairs, or we should have been obliged to put in for a time to some place till we had recovered our damage.


The wind had now become fair so we hoisted all the sail we could, and were carried at the rate of 140 miles in 24 hours.  On Thursday 30th had good wind for some time, being then about 200 miles from the coast of Portugal.


April 4th, still fair for a few days; saw a great many large fish.  On the 7th were 3,856 miles from London.  7th and 8th almost a calm, only 3 knots an hour.  9th and 10th good breezes from the northeast, 240 miles in 24 hours.  Thursday morning just before day, past the Cape de Verd Islands.  12th and 13th still fair, about 10 knots.  14th saw a Brig, being the first we had seen since we left Plymouth; a large ship sailed across our stern the same evening.  April 15th wind fair, a good breeze for the greater part of the time, so that we were by this time in a very warm climate. 


This morning we witnessed a death, which was that of a child, about 2 months old from Camborne, her father's name is Henry Lethean, she was their only child so you may judge the parent's feelings. At about 12 o'clock, the sun shining nearly vertical over our heads, the child was brought on deck (the principal part of the emigrants and sailors being present to witness the  same) and the Surgeon very solemnly read the burial.  Immediately after the child was a thrown overboard in a canvas bag, with stones in the bottom.  We were this day all but at a standstill,  being nearly a dead calm.


Sunday 16th the weather much the same; in the night about 9 o'clock there was a child born, the first birth on board, which made up our former number, the father's name is James Mill, near Redruth.  Several were at this time very sick, grown people especially: the women found it enough to do to bear the heat.  A great part of the men were obliged to sleep on the upper deck in order to give their wives & children free access to the air, who were situated below.  Several of the women with their children preferred sleeping also on the upper deck.


While I sit writing, I sweat as freely as ever I sweat mowing in my life.  Our days at this time were shorter than in England having only 12 hours sun, which proved to our advantage, as it was then very hot.  This day we saw a quantity of very large fish, called black fish, well worth seeing; we also saw a large number of flying fish; they were small about the size of herrings. I caught two on deck, and roasted them but they were not as good as our herrings.


Tuesday 18th, two young women fainted with the excessive heat, it was in the evening just after being ordered below; they were immediately taken on deck, and laid flat on their backs. The surgeon without delay threw three or four buckets of salt water over each of them and they soon revived again.


Sunday 23rd. The weather much the same, very hot and calm.  The second death happened on this day, being the daughter of James Repper, aged 1 year and 7 months, from Breage, the mother being the daughter of John Hosken, Grainge, in the parish of Mawgan.  Shortlyafter this death occurred,the child was brought on deck, and the burial read to her, and then thrown overboard.  It was managed quite as well as anyone could expect on board a vessel.


Soon after the death of this child we were all called together by the Surgeon and received from him a solemn warning to be very careful not to be below more than we were obliged by day; and all the men except those whose families were sick, were strictly ordered to sleep on the upper-deck, to which they readily consented.  A great many families slept up for 15 or 20 days.


Monday 24th another death, the daughter of John Currin, County of Meath, Ireland, aged 2 years and 9 months.


Friday 28th, during the last fortnight we have shortened our journey but little;  this was a continual day's rain; it rained all the day just as it rains for a few minutes sometimes in England during a very heavy thunder-storm.  In the evening James Mills wife had to mourn the loss of her babe.


Sunday 30th  and preceding day the wind blew up, so that, through mercy we went ahead a little; 30th with sorrow of heart we attended the 5th funeral, the son of Mark Allen from London, aged 15 months.  We had a great many thunder storms for a fortnight previous, heavier than in England.


May 1st, 2nd, and five following days, ran again 11 knots an hour; the wind blowing fair from the northeast, and I am happy to state that we are getting into a cooler climate; and we hoped a healthier one.


May 8th another death, being the daughter of Henry Samson from Illogan Cornwall, aged 1 year and 7 months.  On the following day (May 9th) the wife of the said Henry Samson was unexpectedly delivered of a 7 months child, being still born.


10th saw 3 ships for three days; one sailed across our bow about 9 in the evening; if it had been by day we could have spoken to them.  11th saw a whale, but not large, close by our ship.  13th fell in with a ship laden with coals, going to India, kept in sight for two days.  14th for the week previous we did not make but little progress, about 3 and 4 knots.


Tuesday 16th, the wife of William Hanker from Sussex had the pleasure of increasing her little family by giving birth to two fine babes, both girls, living and at that time likely to live.


19th wind fair, steering East and by South, 19 knots. 20th and 21st still fair, 10 knots. 20th we were sorry to witness another death on this day, being the 7th; which was that of a young woman from near London, aged 21 years.


May21st  Mr Hanker's two infants were publickly baptized, as at home, by the Surgeon, named respectively, Adelaide Emily and Jane "Westminster", the latter called in reference to our ship, (Westminster).


Monday 22nd saw a large quantity of birds, called the Cape pigeons, (like pigeons are at home) the Cape Hens and the Albatross; they were very large. I was at the stern in a boat with a line, nearly all day and caught  nothing!!


On the same morning saw a Brig ahead of us and steered up along side about half past three. Our captain hailed, and said ? Where are you from. They replied from Cardiff with Coals. ? Where are you bound to. To the Cape.  We were then asked where we were from, when our Captain said from London, and were bound to Port Adelaide.  Please to report us at the Cape, that you saw the 'Westminster'.


On the 23rd the wife of John Warner from Northamptonshire gave birth to a daughter, seeming willing if possible, to keep up our numbers.  Good breeze 9 knots.


24th still the same, 10 knots. 25th still fair, but the wind much harder, the sea ran mountains high.  Through mercy we were all spared, and by the wind being fair we were heaved ahead 12 knots.  26th remaining fair. 


27th not much wind, 3 knots; on the same day the Captain sent for me to come on the poop with my line to catch some large birds; tried some time, and caught nothing.  Then the Captain asked me if I thought I could shoot one, he said I should have a gun.  I loaded and fired and brought down nothing, save some feathers.  By this time some other men had come on the poop, and said they were sure to kill some, a great many tried, but met with no better success than myself.  We had two guns, and had a sporting- day, but killed nothing.  The Captain found us powder and shot.


May 27th. Another death this morning, being the daughter of Buckley Bevian from Manchester, aged 14 months.  May 31st. Another birth, by the wife of Samuel Stone from Breage, Cornwall, apparently desirous of keeping up our former number, who produced a son, but we were still three behind.  This was a very rough and stormy day, the sea running high as mountains and being a great deal rougher than we had seen it since we first left, and which continued for two days and nights; the wind however was fair, and we were sailing very fast.  By what I could learn we had only just past the Cape of Good Hope.


June 1st for the previous night there was but very little sleep for any person on board the "Westminster"; we had been tossed about very much, and found it difficult to keep in bed; but I am happy to say the wind remained fair and we were making rapid progress towards the port we were so much longing to reach in safety. The weather at this time was cold, I should say quite as cold as March weather in England. Our days however, were shorter than they were in England at that time; we could not see to do anything in the morning before 7 o'clock, nor after 5 in the evening, which seemed curious to us  as it was drawing near Midsummer.


June 9th, this evening the wife of James Repper from Cornwall, of whom I have before spoken and who had lost a child, gave birth to a son.  I am also happy to state that there were but few at this time under the care of the Surgeon.


11th and 12th still fair, 8 knots. 13th and 14th still fair, 10 and 11 knots an hour.


June 16th,  about 7 o'clock saw land ahead of us, and that was indeed a pleasant sight to behold, being the first land we had seen since we left Plymouth; it was a small uninhabited island called St Pauls.  It was on a fine sunny day when we sailed up close by the island, at about 2 o'clock.  There was long grass on the island, and the cliff of different colours, being 7 miles long and 5 wide. We lost sight of the island about 5 o'clock. We were at this time about 2,800 miles from Adelaide which we expected to reach in about a fortnight.  About 3 weeks after this, the Lord was pleased to grant us the realization of our wishes.  It appeared to us a long time to be confined to sea.


23rd. The past week had been very cold and stormy, but fair, 11 knots.  25th much calmer, 5 knots.  I was on the poop with my line and caught two birds called the Albatross, which measured 12 feet 6 inches across their wings.


25th. Another death, the son of John Doidge from the South of Devon, aged about 4 years.  On the 26th another death, the daughter of Henry Salt from London, aged 1 year and nine months. 27th, 28th, and 29th head wind and stormy, made but little progress.  30th.  Wind changed for the better. July 1st, Mrs Hanker had to mourn the loss of one of her infants, named Jane Westminster.  3rd. Another death being the wife of Tristram Rowland from Camborne, who was in decline before she left England.  The children had the measles on board which was the cause of so many deaths.


July 4th, this morning came in sight of Kangaroo Island, and sailing up close by the land, which appeared to be very fine, we discerned some small little huts. On Tuesday, (the same day) about 5 o'clock, anchored in the Bay, about 7 miles from Port Adelaide.


By the time that the anchor was overboard, a boat had come alongside with beef, mutton,  fine cauliflowers, and fine cabbage, all which we were glad to see, and moreover that we were come so near our journey's end, which we had been so anxiously desiring to reach after being so long at sea.


On Wednesday and Thursday we lay there at anchor, there being no wind.  On Friday we got in to the river with the tide.  The river was narrow with trees on each side growing in the water.  the land on both sides was very flat, appearing not much above the water.  On Sunday about 2 o'clock we got in along side of the Quay of Port Adelaide.  I might say there were some scores of people there to receive us, with horses and Spring Carts from the country to make bargains with the immigrants.


By the following Wednesday nearly all had left the ship. A son of Joseph Orchard, my cousin whom I lodged with at Ponsanooth several years since, and a Mr Rogers who lodged with us at Ponsanooth who was accompanied by his brother-in-law and two children, were there on the quay waiting against we came in.  Mr Rogers's brother-in-law had been there for 7 years past.


I went ashore; and to see how the people drank was astonishing; they appeared to regard money but very little; and they seemed to spend a pound with as little indifference as you would two-pence at home.


Edward Williams and his wife engaged with a man for 1 pound a week and rations, to live in the house, and everything provided them.  I thought that was not bad till they could suit better.  He and his wife were at our house  on Sunday, September 17th.  He had his wages raised to L1-4-0 weekly, out of which they manage to lay by L1 or more, which is little better than a poor man can do at home.  They were very well and liked it well.


On the Monday I and John went into the town of Adelaide which was about 7 miles distant, to get a house, but they are scarce to get as so many are coming and they are consequently dear. I procured two rooms at 8/- per week, not rooms as at home, you might almost call them huts.  The town is large, over more than 1 mile square and contains more houses that I expected to see.  There are some fine streets, and some fine houses and finer shops than ever I saw in England, of all sorts.  The town however is very dirty, being cut up with carriages, not much stoned.  Stones are scarce, nothing but lime-stone near the town.


On Tuesday we left the ship, and had our boxes carried to the town, which cost us 7/-.  The ground from the port to the town is very flat, and for many miles around the ground is sandy.


Now by this time you will of course like to hear how we are getting on. I cannot say much as yet. They say here that this is a dead time, for about 2 months. Little that I see, there is plenty of work. On Wednesday I went around to see what I could,  and got some work for John to take up trees on the following day, at the rate of 4/- and two pints of beer per day. On Thursday I went out about 3 miles in the bush, when I saw fine gardens, peas and beans in blossom; potatoes  almost  ripe; and  as fine a country as you would wish to see.


On Friday and Saturday I went to work two days for a parson, to make a road, and for which I had 11/- which was not bad pay.  On the following Monday I went to work for a Jew, to make roads in a lawn at L1-4-0 per week, and with whom I worked 7 weeks.


Elizabeth went to live with a Jew, as child's maid at the rate of 15 pounds per year, a quarter pound of tea a week, and plenty of sugar.  She is now put cook and has more wages.  The Jew keeps five servants.  Susan is living at a place at the rate of 12 pounds.  Joseph at a place for 2 hours in the morning, cleaning boots and shoes at 1/6 per week; he is going to school however next week. Mary is some days keeping a child at 3 pence per day and her meat.


You will doubtless like to know how things are sold here.  Meat is very cheap. I very often think on the poor families at home.  The best beef is 3d, some 2d, some 1 1/2d, as good as you get at home for 6d. Large hock for 6d or 9d as good as for 2/6 at home.  Best legs of mutton 3d. fore quarter at 2d per lb. Head and hinges of a sheep for 3d, pork from 6d to 8d.  Butter was sold at 1/9 when we came here, now it is 1/-.  Good sugar 3d,  good tea 2/-, eggs 1/- per doz.  Apples are dear, being from 6d to 10d per pound; soap 4d per lb, candles 6d per lb.  Potatoes from 1 1/2d  to 2d per pound.  Flour 2d per pound.


More meat thrown away to the dogs here than families can have at home.  You may have a fine milch cow for L1-10-0.  Our cattle here as fine as in England; sheep hardly so large, a leg of mutton weighing from  7 to 9 pounds each.


We were as comfortable as we could expect in the ship coming over, our captain and mate were very kind to us, they gave us a great many things, they gave us as good as a L1 more than the rest had.  Some were always grumbling.  I mended some boots for the mate, and Susan mended some stockings and gloves for the mate and captain. Susan and another little girl the Captain put in the cabin, and called them his two little maidens, they had nuts, tarts, and bread and treacle to eat. I had many glasses of grog, and John also had grog; we helped them with the ropes sometimes. 

I will say to you again my dear friends, there are no letters altered here. When you land you are all free to go and get as much as you can for yourselves.  If you should not get work very soon after landing, you may go to the Government at L1-0-0 per week till you get better. 


Men's shoes 14/- per pair; women's boots 12/- per pair. Mending is dear, 6d for one piece.  From 4/- to 5/- to tap a pair of shoes.  Shoemakers here do not like to mend any.  I may mend as much as I like to do.  Shoemakers do well here.  Mason's get 7/6 per day;  Carpenters 7/- per day.


You will do well, dear friends, not to stay at home to starve; here is plenty of work, plenty of meat,  and plenty of money.  I bless God that I am come here, and I do  wish I was here before. We would go through our voyage again to come. Now you must judge for yourselves.  I can say I am some pounds better now than when I came.  Betsy sends her love and that of the rest to her Father, brothers and sister.  We are quite well at present and like it very well.  I hope to see some of you over; do not stay at home to work for nothing.  John and I am now working for some weeks past at 5/- per day.  If any of you should come, bring whatever you like to carry; bring any sixe boxes; they are not looked over.  Earthenware is dear, iron is dear.  You would do well to bring a large axe and saw to cut firewood.


The land around the town for some  miles is like gentlemen's lawns, the finest place I ever saw. John Smith is working at some stores, at L1 per week and rations; he is living close by us and doing very well.


The weather has been very fine since we have been here, some days as hot as summer at home.  The summer here is hot.  Do not think we are without friends here; there are plenty.  Two sisters to James Julian who married Betsy Williams of the Garris live close by us.  Excuse my writing, and I would write more if I could stay.  The post leaves tomorrow.


P.S.  My dear brothers I should like to see you here. Hannibal, dont you stay there to work hard for nothing. I can assure you, you would do better here to the day's work than you can do at home upon a little farm of your own.  I enclose you some of our parrot's feathers.  I shall send one to Mr Edward Paddy of Ponsanooth by the next ship. You can write him in 4 or 5 weeks to know if he has received it.  Should there be anyone coming, send us a small baking iron, none of them to be had here.


We have been living in Queen Street for some weeks past at 9/- per week; we may remain here some time longer.  Write us soon as you can, by post or any way else.  I forgot to say anything about John, except his getting employment.  He has been very well and works well. 


Direct to me at Grenfell Street, to be left at Mr F. Thomas Bakers.  He is from Wendron, a Class Leader. I will send you again as soon as I can.


From your affectionate brother.

JOSEPH ORCHARD                         

Dated September 26th 1848.


NOTES regarding the letter


Joseph was a son of William and Betsy Orchard of Mawgan-in- Meneage, Helston, Cornwall, England. The first to emigrate with his wife Elizabeth (nee Bolitho) and their children.  His interest in the unpaved  streets of Adelaide stemmed from his trade, which was that of a Pavior.


He was followed in 1849 on the "TRAFALGAR" by his brother William Orchard who was accompanied by his wife, Jane (nee Oates), two sons and four daughters.  William was a shoemaker.


In 1850, their youngest brother Hannibal, with his wife Mary (nee Blewett) and two daughters, arrived in 1850 on the "FATIMA"


The original of this letter is in the Helston Folk Museum, Helston, Cornwall, included in the memoirs of John Boaden (1828- 1904)  who also migrated to S.A. with his parents in 1850 on the "STAG", and later married Eleanor Jane Orchard, daughter of William Orchard.



On board the "WESTMINSTER", an emigrant ship, sailing from Plymouth on the 20th March 1848 and reaching Port Adelaide on 19th July 1848.


Births on Board. (in chronological order)


to James MILL from Redruth, Cornwall.

     child b. 16 Mar 1848      (d. 28 Apr 1848, aged 6 weeks)     

to Henry SAMSON from Illogan, Cornwall.

     child - stillborn 9 May 1848

to William HANKER from Sussex.

     twin Adelaide Emily HANKER b. 16 May bp. 21 May 1848

     twin Jane Westminster HANKER b. 16 May bp. 21 May 1848

          (d. 1 Jul 1848, aged 6 weeks) 

to John WARNER from Northamptonshire,

     dau b. 23 May 1848

to Samuel STONE from Breage, Cornwall

     son b. 31 May 1848

to James REPPER of Breage, Cornwall

     son b. 9 Jun 1848


Deaths on Board. (in chronological order)


of Henry LETHLEAN from Camborne, Cornwall

     dau, 2 months old. d. 15 Apr 1848

of James REPPER from Breage, Cornwall (and his wife, nee HOSKEN,      who was daughter of John HOSKEN from Grainge, Parish of      Mawgen, Cornwall)

     dau, aged 1 year 7 months, d. 23 Apr 1848

of John CURRIN from Meath, Ireland

     dau, aged 2 year 9 months, d. 24 Apr 1848

of James MILLS from Redruth, Cornwall

     baby aged 6 weeks d. 28 Apr 1848

of Mark ALLEN from London

     son aged 1 year 3 months, d. 30 Apr 1848

of Henry SAMSON from Illogan, Cornwall

     dau aged 1 year 7 months d. 8 May 1848 and then

     child stillborn d. 9 May 1848

A young lady from London

     aged 21 years, d. 7 May 1848

of Buckley BEVEAN from Manchester, England

     dau aged 1 year 2 months, d. 27 May 1848

of John DOIDGE from South Devon, England

     son aged 4 years, d. 25 Jun 1848

of Henry SALT from London

     dau aged 1 year 9 months, d. 26 Jun 1848

of William HANKER of Sussex, one of the twins died

     dau Jane Westminster Hanker d. 1 Jul 1848

of Tristram ROWLAND of Camborne, Cornwall

     wife died d. 3 Jul 1848


The surgeon on board eventually diagnosed "MEASLES" as the reason behind all the children's deaths.

People met in Adelaide


Mr Orchard, son of Joseph Orchard from Ponsanooth, cousin of the author, Joseph Orchard of Mawgan.

Mr Rogers from Cornwall

John Smith from Cornwall

Sisters to James Julian of Cornwall

Mr J. Thomas (baker) of Wendron, Cornwall.

Edward Williams and his wife probably off the ship





The Orchard family in the memoirs of John Boaden 

These notes that mention the ORCHARD family have been extracted from Memoirs of John BOADEN for me by Jane HASENBECK [mailto:jane.hasenbeck@gmx.net] – May 2009


John BOADEN writes.


On Sunday November 2nd the first dissenting Sunday School was opened at the Garras Chapel, this was done almost entirely through the activity of Edward Oats Orchard who was learning the printing business at Helston, but remained on Sundays with his parents at Carrabone.

The congregation at Church was good, there was a large good Sunday School, Mrs Mann the Rector´s wife and his large family being very active.  There was no public service at the Garras only Sunday evenings & fortnightly on Monday nights.  The Church held no Sunday evening services,  the Methodists attended the Church services, there was a Sunday afternoon service held in the Baptist Chapel, Rosevear.

I recollect that on Mawgan Feast Monday, Edward Oats Orchard and myself spent much of the night at Joseph Gilbert´s painting letters on a Recabite flag for the next days procession.



I well remember spending a Sunday at Carrabone with E.O.Orchard  & his Helston friends, Richard Cunnack, Richard Woolcock and Thomas Hosking.  Uncle Joseph Gilbert was there to tea, the rest to dinner and of course the head of the family William Orchard. The party was waited on by my late dear wife then a girl in her 17..

Thomas Hosking was the first Phonographer in this district, E.O.Orchard  soon after learned it, and in the Spring of the following year was engaged by the inventor,  Mr. Issac Pitman afterwards knighted, to go to his office at Bath where he printed various books, including `Paradise Lost´ part of the Bible and a periodical the organ of the movement, but he was not robust and I think had to come home to be nursed before he was there much over a year.

My contact with the Orchard family induced me to learn the new system which I did in 1845.

An apprentice at Carrabone, named Nicholas Keverne who had been instructed by E.O.Orchard being my teacher.


The Romance of my life

I sat in the gallery of the Garras Chapel opposite the seat of the Orchard family of Carrabone which consisted of three girls approaching womanhood, & two smaller ones  & two brothers.

Their father was a local preacher, a man of great energy and one of the most intelligent men in the parish and took great pride in his family, he had given them for those days a good education, they were always neatly dressed and would be called a rather good looking and interesting lot of girls, it is not to be wondered at, that they should attract my notice, but the second daughter Eleanor Jane made by far the deepest impression on my mind, indeed her brighter eyes, cheerful countenance, and sweet voice and a certain undefinable something else soon won my affection without any effort on her part.

I succeeded occasionally in getting in her company.  In Spring of 1843 finding she and little sister had gone to Trevassack, I went there and escorted them across the fields a nearer way home and might be forgiven if I stole the first kiss of love.  On her way to Trevassack, she passed through a muddy gateway to Bejorrow Croft, their footprints were firmly imprinted and the dry weather rendered them firmly stamped for some time, I looked at those footprints almost as if they were sacred.

The same year I went after the Sunday evening service on Feast Day to Trelowarren Lodge by Relowas Gate then occupied by N. Kevern, with Eleanor Jane her Aunt Mary, Uncle Hannibal and his affianced (Miss Blewett) and their cousin Betsy Pentecost, it was enchanting times.

I also went to meet Elizabeth James and Eleanor Jane returning from St Martin one Sunday evening, met at Trelowarren and accompanied E.J. home, but did not impart to her the feelings of my heart.

At the early part of 1844 E.J. not being much wanted at home, took a situation as Nursery maid at Capt Passinghams  (Colonel´s son), near Falmouth.  The master died very soon after she went there, she used to put the children almost daily to Swan Pool.  Her father coming down, not liking her situation, took her home with him, forteting some wages, was there 11 weeks.

I was with a Helston party to Carabone in July 1844 before mentioned, the whole place had a charm for me, everything about the house and family was tasty and respectable and situated near the principal gate-way to Trelowarren it seemed to have a share in its aristrocratic importance.  At that time Sir Richard was undisputedly `King of the district´.

E.J´s   Father was the son of William & Betsy Orchard, the former having 3 brothers, Hannibal who was a successful seafaring man who resided at Falmouth and sailed in a Packet ship.  E.J.  spent some holidays there.  The other brothers were Philip who farmed County Bridge, and thatched for the farmers, and Joe who was a highway labourer, his wife who kept the grocer´s shop where Mr Pearce lives now,  was the daughter of old Tome Cooke who came down a young man from North Devon as a wheel-wright to Trelowarren, she had three brothers, Ned, John  Tom, all fond of drink & all carpenters, and 3 sisters, one married to Allen at Traboe, another to a Pentecost in St Keverne, and the other, the youngest, Jane to a Trelowarren servant called Green, I think 2 of her sons and one daughter still survives.

E.J´s  Mother was the eldest daughter of John & Eleanor Oats, the Father came down as smith to Trelowarren and settled in St Martin Green & bought a freehold properts, now 3 fields near Newtown.

Mrs Oats was a Williams from Gweala…can.  They had one son called Edward Oats who died when he was about 21, and 5 daughters, the eldest Jane married William Orchard, Mary married Richard Charles, a miller who once had Skyburriowe Mill and lived in the old mill house in Gwealdrinkas.  Rosa married John Carlyon who farmed Trelease.  Clara married Thomas Eva builder at Helston, & Eleanor married John Trerise who remained home with the old people, the old man who had been blind for years died about 1845, and the old woman (Aunt Eleanor) died triumphantly about 1858.

William Orchard when a lad went to sea for a voyage or two, but his Mother could not rest for thedanger and he was apprenticed as a shoe maker to Ben Tonkin at St Martin where he got aquainted with his future wife and both went to Class meeting together about the year 1813, in ten years after they were married he had bought the leasehold of Carrabone from Edward Dale, he settled there and began a shoemaking business which grew to be a prosperous one, he usually had two apprentices, so he learnt a great many and they generally turned out well.  He also had the 5 meadows and kept two cows.  He began to preach about 1820, and to lead a Class 5 years after, but his active mind & superior intelligence drew upon him the opposition of those who envied him, which was strikingly manifested just after the Great Revival of 1839.

He was a member of Mawgan Sick Club which met at the public house, it was large and prosperous, had about  1400 pounds (money) in stock. A revision of its rules was deemed necessary, William Orchard was entrusted with getting it done, he employed T.H.Edwards a Conveyancer, but at a meeting of the club about this matter a very strong discussion arose, among others Mr Peter Andrew spoke excitedly.  It ended in a Trial befor the Helston Magistrates, when William Orchard gave evidence, the opposite party said he had taken a false oath because he said he did not hear Mr Andrew say certain words,  E.J.  says that she remembers that word came to Carrabone before her Father arrived from Helston that he had taken a false oath.  The calumny grew, the Wesleyan society which had just been so largly increased was greatly agitated and William Orchard was pained to see what he had worked so hard to accomplish, to a large extent destroyed.  John Carlyon had been recently appointed a Leader, he left the chapel with most of his Class and joined the Baptists which had built a chapel at Rosevear about 1820.  For the above reason they were flourishing when we came to Mawgan in 1840.

One beautiful Saturday evening in 1846 I walked home from Helston with William Orchard, with E.J. walking behind, he then told me this whole tale, the separation of 1835 scarcely affected the Mawgan society,  Hugh Lyne only leaving.

The new chapel which William Orchard was the most active promoter was opened in November 1834, my dear wife and I were both present, but more trouble was in store for Mawgan Wesleyansand William Orchard in particular.

The teetotal zeal in Mawgan was rather opposed than helped by most of the ministers who frequently were not abstainers, this had increased for some time and culminated early in 1845 by a comparatively large number of members leaving the Garras society, which were joined by several who had a few years befoe seceded to the Baptists and joined a new church under the title of Teetotal Wesleyans.

The difficulty of managing a new connection was so great that in a few years they joined the Weslyan Methodist Association, now the Free Church.  They stipulated in ding so that no preacher who was not an abstainer should occupy their pulpit, or any non abstainer be a member of their society.

The formost man in the Temperance Crusade was Tobias Johns of St Martin a very zealout, devoted and determined man, a converted smuggler.  But as William Orchard was the principal man in the Wesleyan Society and tried to take a middle course, he could not expect to pass through these times of reproach and strife and excited party feeling unscathed, though there was no manifestation of injury in his manner & spirit,  these wars somewhat affected his business, and probably one of the causes, & perhaps an important one of his leaving the country in 1849.  He often when not away preaching on Sunday, would take his children to his bedroom and give them religious instruction & pray with them, he was a force for good anywhere, especially at home.  My wife was blessed in her parentage, the children learned to call them blessed.



At this time her eldest sister  Elizabeth had gone to be a housemaid at Trelowarren, where she remained till she went to Bath, I think in 1847  & was engaged to David Edwards of Nansloane who left for America in 1848 and died on his passage.



I had cause to be careful for Father´s suspicions were awakened and he was much offended on account of my youth, and also to my having a dressmaker not accustomed to farm work, so my interviews with my girl were the reverse of public, but as time went on became more frequent.



E.J´s  eldest brother had been obliged to return from Bath two or three times, and it was feared that his health would not be able to stand a return to his old employment, this was a great disappointment to the family, he had received an expensive education for those days and seemed to be destined for success, but his repeated failures of health clouded the hopes, he thought the Australian climate would suit him, added to this his Father´s business had somewhat failed and the girls especially were a fine family for emigration.


The  Father´s eldest brother Joe (who had married a Bolitho) who had emigrated from Ponsanooth to South Australia had commenced to send home very good accounts.  All this made William Orchard and family turn their eyes to S.A.  E.J.´s Father being over 50 and so firmly rooted and so useful and susch a figure in the parish, it was scarcely possible it was thought for him to go, but times here grew very depressed and many were leaving.  My dear Nelly and myself had to consider our position and arrived at the conclusion that if the family went, she had better go with them and return to me in a few years.

This we thought, might afford a solution of our matrimonial difficulties as then the objection to age and the effects of time and other possible circumstances might open the way easily to our union.

The question of emigration was an exciting one at this time and became much more so after gold discoveries in Australia in 1851.

Times were bad, corn ruinously low, without any prospect of improvement & accounts from Australia very good.  There was a free & assisted emigration to SA.  William Orchard had made an application for his family & had been accepted, and sailing orders might soon be expected, but we sscarcely thought they would really go, their hearts would fail or something prevent, it was too serious an affair really to be carried out, but E.J. & myself had given ourselves to each other unreservedly in heart, often met & were prepared for anything.

One evening, I think, in first week of December I accompanied E.J. to Trelowarren, she was getting orders for work from the servants, when Clara hastily came up to tell her sister not to undertake to do anything, sailing orders had just arrived & the family would be leaving in about a fortnight.

Mr Orchard had a sale at a public house on the leasehold of Carrabone it was bought by Sir Richard Vyvyan.  However there was a singing meeting held the night after the receipt of sailing orders, some singers from a distance attending.  I think I saw E.J. every night till they left.

The night of leaving came, a great many people from far & near came to say farewell, parties from St Martin, St Keverne, Helston etc.

The ceaseless activity of the past fortnight had resulted in all the luggage being packed and ready.  Edward Oats had started in the morning for Falmouth with a carriage and the heavier luggage.  Elizabeth only arrived from Bath after dark and soon proceeded to Trelowarren to see some of the maids, old acquaintance, we went with her, but from there E.J. & I took a walk to Trecoose grotto, the night was beautiful, still, the moon about full, still, & frosty, ours was a long walk, it was to be the last for years, and what was before us we knew not, but we knew in our own minds.

On returning to Carrabone, we found a large number of people with a Prayer meeting being held in the kitchen, where those leaving and those remaining were commending each other to the care of their Heavenly Father.

Just after midnight Mr. Dunstone´s wain of Skyburriowe & A. Tripp´s van was loaded, one with boxes & the other members of the family & with the warmest well wishes & sorrow of their friends left Carrabone for ever, but they kept their spirits up well especially Mrs Orchard who was leaving her mother and a large circle of near relatives.

I went with E.J. to past Swing Gate on the way to nanseven where she got in the van, I wished them all farewell, Mrs Orchard saying ``John, I will get a leg of mutton for you when you arrive out to us`` 

I met William Orchard & his brother Hannibal walking just behind, bid them farewell, though the latter did not emigrate for some months after, this was on the morning of December 21st on a Friday.

The emigrants proceeded to Falmouth, by steamer in the morning to Plymouth where they entered the emigration depot, it was a cold passage up.

They left for Australia on the 26th in an emigrant ship called ``Trafalgar´´.  There were I think nearly 200 on board, they had in the teens of deaths on the voyage principally children.  They arrived all, safe at Adelaide on April 2nd 1850.  Proceeded at once to the city, took a house opposite the Freemason´s Tavern, where my dear E.J. just at once commenced business.  I got my first letter from E.J. in the following August. 



My dear E.J. moved with the rest of the inhabitants of Adelaide.  Left May 3rd for Melbourne where she had not been long when she had the sad duty of burying her brother Edward Oats, he had been delicate for years but appeared to be well just then & worked in a newspaper office.  His intended wife had just arrived from  Adelaide, he was seized vomiting blood and shortly died.  He was avery studious, thoughtful & uselful young man, had been one of the Superintendants of Perie Street Sunday School, Adelaide. 

Her brother William was then in Melbourne & of course helped, he was working at boot-closing, her Father at the diggings was written to, he came to Melbourne & thence retuned to Adelaide.

E.J. held situations in two shops while there, drapery & millinery and left for Adelaide, May 3rd



Edward Oats was engaged to Elizabeth Dunstone, Skyburriowe, when he left England and Elizabeth Orchard to a young printer called Peverall, who I saw in London, a very respectable young man, but Elizabeth Orchard & Elizabeth Dunstone both quickly failed, E.J. and me only abiding.

Elizabeth & Clarinda were both married, I think, in less than 12 months form their arrival, the first to James Pappin who had preceded them about 2 years in the Colony, and John Trewennack from Mawgan who left about Michaelmas 1849.



On the last day of December 1854, my dear and faithful intended left her parents & numerous relatives & sailed from Adelaide for England.  Her Father and my Uncle John were there to see her sail, the former said ``we shall soon see her out again´´.  The latter ``you will never see her any more´´.

It is only since her death that I have realized the great sacrifice she made for me.



The vessel arrived at St. Helena, March 9th when E.J. and many others rode around the island in a carriage, had a cutting from the willow tree that hung over Napoleon´s tomb.  I recollect letter of E.J. coming March 19th.  She was landed from the vessel off Gravesend, by Mr George Spain, her late master´s brother May 10th.

James Boaden, who was then a schoolmaster at Purfleet some miles up the river, was then telegraphed for, he at once came down as he had promised me to do, and on the next day put her to London where she lodged with Mrs Healy a fellow passenger who from that time were fast friends.  She went with Mrs Healy to see some of the sights, but left London on 22nd arrived at Hayle by steamer on 23rd where her Uncle & Aunt met her with conveyance to take her luggage to Gwallon near Marazion.  They had not arrived long before I got down, and received the seperated & faithful girl, it would be an epoch in any mans life.  Her appearance was somewhat altered, bronzed a little by the Australian sun & sea air, she also had a new set of artifical teeth, quite an uncommon thin in those days, given by her Father before leaving, costing 16,00 pounds, but she was substancially the same E.J.O.  We could hardly express our feelings, either side.

On the following week I went down again, we went to Redruth were E.J. had her likeness taken to send back by Fanny Moody´s Father.

During the harvest E.J. was at Skyburriowe and helped about the harvest sometimes rolling, sheaf carrying & spent the fall at St Martin, Helston and Maraion (Gwallon) but our courtship must come to an end so we decided it should do so on January 1st 1856.

Just before this date E.J. was pretty much at Mr Evans, Aunt Secombe was going to get the wedding dinner at Gwallon, we had a large hunting party in the Xmas, killed a hare that was sent on for the occasion.



The day came, when James Boaden & myself & William & his betrothed Susan Davies went to Helston in Polwin market cart, had our wedding breakfast at Mr Evans then to Wesleyan Chapel where the indesoluble knot was tyed by Rev Edward Watson.


(sent by Jane HASENBECK – May 2009)

Letter - Eleanor Jane BOADEN (nee ORCHARD) - 1854

Copy of Diary written by Eleanor Jane Orchard during her voyage to England from South Australia 1854-1855 (sent by Jane HASENBECK – May 2009)


Left Adelaide Dec 30th 1854, went on board ship “Victoria” for London, sailed 4pm.

Sunday 31st. Sick first day, passed Kangaroo Island, saw porpoises, the Murray eagle flew overhead and was seen drowning. 1st Dinner, ducks, fowls, mutton, pork, peas, variety of tarts, cheese and almonds, plums.


Next day, roast turkey, ducks, leg of mutton etc, puddings, tarts, raisins, almonds. Thought of home and the dear ones I left behind, thought of meeting my dear absent one the other side of this vast ocean, for whom I have and will endure trial if necessary. Oh, Thou who art Preserver of all mankind, enrich me with patience, defend and guide me by Thy will as angels do in Heaven.


The Captain; a St Ives man, 7 Cornish people passengers, 17 ladies and 10 gentlemen, plenty of good things to eat but contrary winds.


Sunday. Captain read prayers and sang hymns in style. Supper cold plum pudding etc and glass of neages. Near Cape Lewin, heavy seas, good officers, temperate, very happy. I like visiting the farm yard. I never saw so many ducks in such little room, we have goats which give plenty of milk. For breakfast, ham, pork, sausages, chops, curried fowl, coffee, hot rolls. We formed a choral society on board, near Cape Lewin, 1300 miles.


Our passengers are all nice and highly respectable, I have not seen a card yet. We get some tunes every evening from the Cornish sailor on the violin. We play draughts, going 9 knots, fair wind, dressed for service, watched the tremendous waves till I was lost in thought, bidding my sister adieu, and all the rest of my dear relatives.


Dinner, salmon, roast turkey, ducks, leg of pork, tongue, boiled leg of mutton, plum pudding, tarts, cheese, almonds, variety of vegetables and sauces. Am low spirited, weather hot, dress light, trade winds, funny tales, riddles, “A penny for your thoughts” John and Betty said “The first is what we underfoot do tread, the second is what some do use for bread, the third is what we all do crave, the riddle tell me and your penny save, (mat-ri-mony). Why is a sweet at sea like a Dandy?  Because there is a swell on board.


A lace mitten found and sold by auction. Mrs HEALEY owned it Mr ADAMS pet parrot was put up, Mrs HEALEY bought cage and all 5/-which they gave 5 guineas for 7 years since, but they would not really sell it for any amount. After this little game, dinner, after the honours of the table, a walk, weather delightful, going 10 knots.


            Captain says we bid fair visit St Helens by March 30th, that is two thirds the way. Delightful, it is like yachting. Why is a gunsmiths shop like a chicken pie? Because they both contain fowl in pieces. The Madajase ? winds are very oppressive. Passed St Paul’s Island. I look at the chart every day. We had sweepstakes, each put in a chance 2/6.  For each 2/6 there is a date written on a slip of paper, whichever date we arrive at St Helena will win 45/-. Caught a large shark. I saw him turn on his back and swim around the bait, a large piece of pork, close to the stern, at last he took a grab, they took him round the vessel side and laid him on the quarterdeck, we all had a look at him. The mate took out his backbone, I have a piece cut off his head and tail and threw him overboard. I saw some albatross, had a lobster supper, 80 miles from Cape.  Bell rang to dress for dinner, dear little Miss RUSSELL had a tooth extracted. I won the sweepstakes and the prize (both). Got to St Helena at 8, the Doctor and eight other gents came on board, then boat with washer woman, fruit, pears, peaches and grapes.


            At 9 we had breakfast, the Captain, and all but 4 passengers went on shore. I was pleased with the appearance of the island. I went first to Post office, then Church, had a fine organ. Was surprised to see such a fine church at St Helena, saw another church, saw people of every shade, white and black as we drove through the town, my attention was called to see 2 yellow girls smoking cigars, they looked shy, we smiled and they hid them under their dresses.


            Went to Government House and was introduced to Lady ROSS, we were ushered into the drawing room and shown some curiosities, a silver trowel with acacia handle presented to the Governor. Lady ROSS had some fine grapes bought in, and peaches which we did justice to. We then drank some fine wine out of Napoleon Bonaparte’s coffee cup. After we rested a bit Mr BURNETT and Lady ROSS took us to into a splendid garden where there is the prettiest fish pond I ever saw, the fish the size of plaice, the loveliest bright colours I ever beheld. The peaches, plums and grapes were scattered over the ground in abundance. Curious flowers and trees, I have a leaf of sago palm which is the prettiest palm I ever saw. The date and banana are plentiful, fruit not as fine flavour as Adelaide fruit. English oak and furze in plenty, prickly pear, going over the hill to the Tomb is over-run with it.


            We bid adieu to our kind friends and we went shopping which was a bit difficult, they had not a good supply of fancy or drapery goods. We went on board at 6. Went on shore after breakfast next day, the carriages were in waiting for us on the landing place, we started for Napoleon’s house and tomb, it was 9 miles, all winding round hills, the scenery was delightful, we visited the house first where Bonaparte resided, we then went to the fish pond and got a piece of bark, and thence to the house built for him and through his garden where we got some flowers, then did a little eating and drinking, fowl, chicken etc. We then went to the tomb in a beautiful retired spot, where Bonaparte’s remains lay. I have a piece of willow which hung over the tomb, we drove to town, different way, so that we drove all round the island, we then went on board.


            I had shingles, in bed 3 days, heat extreme. The Doctor very attentive indeed, and Captain very kind. The Steward without exception the most kind hearted young man I ever came across. All attention and comfort.  I took 5 months to come to England.


Letter – William ORCHARD - 1876


This son of William and Jane Orchard was born at Mawgan, Cornwall, and at 15 years emigrated with his parents and four sisters and one brother in 1849 to Port Adelaide and died in Australia sometime after 1876. The letter is written to his sister Eleanor Jane who married John Boaden of Mawgan, and was the only member of the family to return to England.

(Copy sent by Jane HASENBECK – May 2009)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

                                                                                                            Melbourne, June 20th 1876.

My dear Sister,

                        I promised to write you a very long letter on foolscap, but I may not write so long a one as I had intended, the reasons I have not written before are principally indolence, down heartedness and being so long isolated from my people that the natural ties of kindred are broken, hence forgetfulness, but I have made a start now, and hope I will be able to fill this sheet, it is not however very easy to write you a long letter, as about Melbourne and its people you will not feel interested and of Adelaide I know nothing neither good or for evil, especially the former, of the few intimate acquaintances you had in Melbourne I will tell you all I know about them. The NANCARROW family are all living in Ballarat, mining and very poor. Mr ROWSFOR their son-in-law died many years ago, after which his wife and her family soon found their former level, they are related I believe to one John KILTON, Vet, of Rosewan.


            BRIDGES of Helston is a sort of foreman in boot-making department at Pentridge Prison Stockade.  James MOINS of Helston (of Godly books and grindstone celebrity) is a money broker in Melbourne, but is a low scamp of a fellow. I have heard while I was in New Zealand he was in gaol for receiving stolen property.


Tom COLWIN, the hatters son, does not live far from me, he is a miserably poor half loafer, half beggar, and I believe he is sickly and unable to work for his family of which I believe he has 8. Alfred his brother is a Draper’s Asst. at Dalesford, originally Jim CROW diggings. Old Mrs WENN of Manaccan, the old lady we used to go and see sometimes Sundays, is still alive, about 80 now, she was twice married, after her last husband died she went to live with her brother William CARLYON, who is a farmer in Kilmore. I called with my wife to see her when I came from N.Z.  I walked boldly inside when I saw her sitting at the fire,  I asked her if she knew me, she stared, and seemed alarmed, and said “No, I never saw you before” (and if you recollect, I lived with them when I first came to Melbourne). I asked her if she recollected 14 years before, a young man who had been travelling overland from Adelaide with cattle, washing his moleskin trousers there himself and waited till they were dry, who was going to the N.Z. diggings, fetched her a glass of beer from the hotel and had some apple pie. “Yes” she said “I remember the young man, but you are not he”. “Yes I said, I am the same”. “No” she said “that was William Orchard, but you are not he”. I protested however I was the same and told her about many people and places she knew, but still she said “No, you are another TICHBOURNE”, so when I found she would not believe, we laughed well and should have left, but  the poor old woman got half convinced and said “Well, if you are the same William Orchard, perhaps you will have a drink of tea”, of which however we declined, and so ended the only interview I have had with the poor old woman who was such a friend to my fathers, as he dined there when he preached at Manaccan.


            Of Tom ISLE and the DUNSTANS, I know nothing, have not heard of them for 20 years

Sandy BOADEN does not live far from me, he came and fetched my wife and self down to his home one Sunday some time since, he has 2 boys going to school, Sandy has some houses and other property about the Collingwood flat, and I believe does not need to work for his living.


            We called to see one LAWREY who married one of the MARTINS at the Pond, he was away at the races. Mrs LAWRY sent for some beer, of which by the way she talked, she seemed to have had enough, she said she once saw in some paper about some ORCHARD having killed another in a fight, so she had made up her mind it was me, and that I had been hanged, such was the flattery heaped upon me by the ignoramus.


            Young GRYLLS is practicing as a solicitor at Brunswick. I pass many people I knew in my former days, we were friends then, so selfish have the people grown, you do not see any more the happy countenances of 20 years ago, people walk along moody, thoughtful and anxious, jostling and thrusting each other aside (not on pleasure bent) as formerly, but eager and intent upon business (all for what ?) to get money to make both ends meet and procure the ordinary necessaries of life, poor indeed has Melbourne become since you an I first landed in it 25 years since, what changes since then, a deal of wealth there is, but what a lot of poverty, people I believe have not half the anxiety at Home, they have here, one thing however, I do believe and that is that drink is the cause the poor and the working classes in the Colonies will have drink, while the people at Home to a great extent do without it. This was caused in the Colonies at first by the people having too much money, through the diggings breaking out and making Jack as good as his Master, his pockets full of sovereigns then, while alas it is only coppers now, but having contracted wasteful habits he tries to carry it out still, hence the poverty and the misery of the masses.


            There is one other individual I had forgotten to tell you about, John JAMES, of course you will remember him, he once lived with us in Adelaide, and it was John I came over here with first to go gold digging, we went to Forest Creek in Aug 1851. A man named Laurie, a cousin of Johns, went with us, three mates, we had not worked long however, before I found these two cousins were working in each others hands, a thing easily done in digging. I determined to part from them, so we squared up, I came to town. Now those two men had they acted rightly to me, it might materially altered my course of life. I was only a senseless boy then, and thought I had money enough, but I found (that without a proper guide) my few pounds were soon squandered away in Melbourne in dissipation and folly, those two remained in digging for some little time, and made some thousands of pounds, they came to Melbourne and built a steam saw mill and made a lot more money at that; now I had lost sight of those two for 20 years and often wondered what became of them, but the other day, in marched the two into my house together, it appears John, thinking he had made money enough, went home to Cornwall to marry someone he had known before he came out, but squandered away a lot of money at home in showing off and bought and brought out a lot of unsuitable goods, together with several of T Williams cooking ranges, these and other things turned out a bad spec, and he appears to have lived on his money while it lasted and eventually settled down as a bootmaker in Ballarat where like everyone else who has anything to do with the leather business, he soon came to poverty, he is now working in a boot factory in Collingwood, and his wife whom is a very nice woman says he earns the wages of a boy or about 30/- per week, so much for John and his thousands. Laurie, his cousin, has several valuable houses near where I live, and has not worked for years. Of the three old mates, the pioneers of the Victorian diggings, two are certainly badly off, while the third seems to have no pleasure in his wealth.


            I don’t know if the foregoing is interesting or not, but I must write about something. I promised to write a long letter and I will do so, and I will tell you bye and bye about the many improvements in Melbourne.


            You think no doubt, I should write about myself and my affairs, I can assure you I am a poor worthless creature, the least said about myself the best, any of my relations will give you my history in a very few words, it is a thing I dislike talking of, self. Many a long and truthful letter I have written of self, many of which you have heard read. I have long since given up letter writing for friendship sake, when absolutely required for business or other matters, I am always ready, this will partly account for my long delay in writing, downheartedness was another reason


            I have been 12 months sick, and as far as I at present know, shall never get well any more, it is hard for me to think about that, but still I do often think so and I fret a great deal about it which makes me no better, but perhaps worse, when I came up from New Zealand which I had to do for my wife’s health. I started a business in Sandridge, but it did not turn out as I thought.

N.Z. where I was among a digging community, where coppers are not known and shillings and pounds plentiful, I did a good trade, and made money easily, but here where things are cut so fine, working and struggling against each other it is the very coppers themselves and the coppers people seem to grasp at as the profits, it seems strange you would get 30/- for an article in N.Z. (where I was) and you would only get 10/6 for the same here, the material costing the same in both places, your actual expenses the very same. Yet such is the case in the boot trade.


            I gave up that business and took a shop in Collingwood, that was worse still, then I took a situation, I had too take charge of a machine room where 20 girls were employed at 50/- per week. I was there 12 months and then caught a bad cold which settled on my lungs. I have bronchitis, chronic dyspepsia etc, I have been to 3 doctors. I feel very weak and fretting. I feel I have lost all the energy and pluck required to face the turmoil of life, perhaps a change of climate, Queensland or Adelaide with some light out door occupation would wear it off, but the boot trade would break the heart of a grindstone. I think when Cain killed his brother Abel and God set a mark upon him, he made a shoemaker of him, no greater hand of disgrace or dishonour could he place upon him. I am glad my Father didn’t make me a shoemaker, how I became one I do not know, it stole upon me like a thief in the night.


The first money I earned at it was in Dunedin, 28/- per day for closing 2 pairs of knee boot legs in a day at 14/- per pair, I saw I could do it. I did it, and been at it ever since, but times have changed, machinery has put a stop to all that. You ask me in your letter what my prospects are, well I could not tell you, they are not very bright, if I had my health, I did not care. I am young yet, 42, but I do not look so old by many years. Twelve months ago my wife would pull out one grey hair, but now I see I have plenty. I don’t trouble about my hair, but I never had sickness or trouble before. In N.Z. if things got bad in one place, we sought another, we have travelled all over N.Z. by coach, waggon or steamer and never made many mistakes, when things got dull at Christchurch, or the E Coast we crossed the Dividing Range (perpetually covered with snow) with a 6 horse wagon to the West Coast where we made more money, one side of the range eggs were 3/- per doz. and butter 3/- per lb, while the Christchurch side (Canterbury Plain) we could buy these eggs for 6d per doz and the butter for 5d per lb, but that showed it was a poor place in one place I would earn 10/- per day and the other 30/- ( a rolling stone gathers no moss they say) that old adage might hold good in England, where things are much about the same in all parts of it, but it does not do out here where things are so fluctuating – a labourer gets 7/- per day in Melbourne, if he will venture to go to Port Darwin, he would get at least 12/- or 15/-.


My idea is to get as far away from old settled places as possible, follow up the new places where labour is well paid, of course provisions are high, but that does not make much difference. The first bar-maids at a new rush on the West Coast would get £10 per week after 2 or 3 months they will be reduced to £5, and at length to 50/- which is the present money paid to them in Hokitika.

I tell you this, not that you care about bar-maids or their wages, but as an illustration. In Melbourne you could get them, as you like at 8/- per week.


            Had I my health, I would not stay in Melbourne another week, but would be off somewhere. Melbourne is as poor as London or any other over crowded city. It is the great centre, thousands are satisfied to live and work there for little, because all the great sights are here, all the pleasures and enjoyments they require, now, I do not care for these things. I would be satisfied to go to New Guinea if there was any inducement to go, never mind the theatres and operas and other things to be seen, I would trust to the sociality of the people in those new places for pleasure and enjoyment.


            I find in again referring to your letter, there is not much to reply to and yet there is a very great deal. If I answer your almost only question in you letter, you ask what my prospects are at present, for time and eternity. I have endeavourer to explain to you that my earthly prospects are very bad through sickness, but for Eternity, Ah.


            What can I say of that? They are worse indeed than the other, I feel myself quite unable to speak on the subject not but that I think of it daily. I have never been in a place of worship since I was sick, whether I am more sinful for that I know not, I cannot go out in the night air and keep myself indoors all I can. Have you read Harriet Beecher Stowes ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’, there is a great similarity between the character of St Clare as there depicted and mine, he was up to Heaven’s gate in theory and down to the Earth’s dust in practice, so it is and ever has been with me, but that does not keep me from thinking of my Creator.


I have never been converted which I suppose means becoming a believer in Christ, but in all my travels through life I have trusted to the Almighty Being to give me those blessings we require, I have been ever grateful for them, and I pray to Him to continue to favour us with those blessings He has never with-held them from me. I have always earnestly and zealously trusted in a Divine Providence, there is something in our nature that tells us we are powerless without Divine aid. I have said to my wife, perhaps thousands of times, “Trust to Providence”. Yes, I do not say it as an idle word, I say it believing and feeling confident it will be provided, so it ever has been, is that faith? I will tell you a little story, you said in your letter “tell us of some of your career”, it will help to delineate my character better than any other way, all the people in Mawgan (where I was born) called me a bad boy, often I am sorry to say, without a reason, well to oblige them, I will admit I was bad, but wherever chance threw me, I never forgot my Creator, whether in the diggings or in the bush. I pleaded with the Almighty to forgive me nightly and as if the prayers of the wicked availeth,  nothing, I would every night think of my poor mother, she was alive then, poor I say, but I feel that she was rich, rich in faith, rich in grace, what would I give to be like her, well I know she prayed for me daily, she was a righteous woman, her prayers would be heard, so I felt and believed and trusted that through her intercession I should come to no wrong.


One day however, I found myself in the Bush, 400 miles north of Adelaide, I went down to the nearest station to get letters for camp, one was for me, it told me of my Mothers death. (Jane Orchard died 27th June 1861 aged 61 years.)  I did not cry, my very breath stopped, half of my existence seemed to have left me, that great interceder seemed to have deserted me. God heard not unrighteous prayer, who would pray for me now, such were the thoughts that for a few moments staggered me, Well not long after then, we penetrated the country north, beyond the settled districts, and one of the horses going astray, I went in search of it, but at nightfall I found I had lost myself. I did not lie down as a good bushman would and track himself back on the morrow. I was on horseback but continued to wander about all night in hopes of seeing the camp fire, but daylight found me and the poor horse knocked up without the slightest idea of where I was or which way to go, it was then I realized the fact that I was actually lost in the waterless north and this in the middle of summer with the scorching sun overhead, no shade, no trees in that country, one endless plain, 70 miles from water to water and then you must know which way to take to get there. This I did not know, so sucking a pebble I wandered about the second day, on the third day I got back to the last of the hills called ‘Termination Hill’ that being the last from Adelaide which just out on the great plains which extend from there to the Gulf of Carpentaria.


Those hills gave me hopes of finding water. Towards evening of the third day, walking and leading poor ‘walkaway’ so called for rambling, by the bridle, I came upon a track that had been made by cattle . I followed it to the hills and long after dark from the bellowing of cattle found the watering place, but there was only one water hole and in it were scores of cattle, bellowing and splashing about, while all around were scores of dead cattle, neither myself or horse could drink, the water was thick black mud. I left poor ‘walkaway’ by the water and I went down the dry shingle bed of the creek (Monday Creek) looking for some water hole or some living being. I called in vain, I came back disheartened and gave up all hopes of seeing a human being again. I laid the saddle upside down on the stones with my head in it as a pillow I slept the sleep of the innocent. Daylight, fourth day brought the view of dead cattle galore and wild dogs eating at the carcasses, live cattle in the puddle hole as before, no vegetation about except a little salt bush, no hut, nothing to be seen, I searched for hours, could find nothing. About noon I thought I would go to the highest hill to see if I could see anything, but I could not, it was then I fell on my knees on that hill and prayed earnestly for myself and called on my Mother who was dead to be my Guardian Angel still and intercede for me, was it faith, or was it that made my heart so light as I walked down the hill, I was saved from that horrible death, death from thirst, hunger is nothing, few have found their tongue dry and sticking to the roof of their mouth from hunger. I have more than once in the north of Adelaide been unable to utter a word from thirst. Need I tell you how I was saved that time. From the hill I had seen a long distance away another hill, what appeared to be a green patch of Kangaroo grass which I went to get to bring the poor horse which was scarcely able to walk, when I got there I found 2 saddles. From there I tracked the horsemen about a mile to a gorge where they were camped, men in charge of cattle who were trying to take them to a place called Hurgate Springs. The next water 70 miles from there, out of 800 cattle they started with they lost all but 120. It is a long story but it will show you I have been in scenes of danger, but that the Great Provider in whom I have trusted has never deserted me.


Dear Sister, I can say nothing of Eternity, it is a subject upon which I do not have power to concentrate my thoughts, it is a subject too great for me. I fear with all my faith I am a long way from what I should be, but again I say, I shall trust in Him that He will make all things clear to me, and may we dear sister, be more united when we enter upon that Eternity than we have been during our earthly stay.


This sheet is so near done, give our love to John and all your children. Thanks for likeness. My wife shall have hers taken and send you. I will write you on some other subjects next time. I don’t know if you have patience to read this, but have written it through without stopping. With love to you all

Your affectionate brother an sister

(signed) William and Sarah Orchard