kittoHISTORY.doc                                                                                                              14 Oct 1997

                                                SAMUEL KITTO


The first Kitto of my family to arrive in Australia was Samuel Kitto.  His ship of arrival has yet to be discovered,  so he appears in South Australia out of the blue.  There are no shipping records of him arriving at Adelaide, and no mention of him arriving through any of the provincial harbours in South Australia (as detailed in the Mortlock Library of S.A.).  My assumption is that he either arrived on a vessel whose passengers are not (yet) listed in the early records,  or he was part of the Victorian Gold rush of 1854,  and after only a couple of years in the gold fields of Western Victoria, then travelled overland through the Adelaide Hills. He is first logged in official records with his marriage in 1856.[1]



His origins are from Breage in Cornwall, where Samuel Kitto was baptised on the 8th May 1831,  the second child of William KITTO and Elizabeth nee TREMBATH, a master mason and grocer of Ashton, Breage.[2]  Samuel is still at home for the 1851 census on the night of the 30th March,[3]  so would have left for Australia some time after this.



Migrating into South Australia at that time were :

            James KITTO (1817‑1876), a Methodist from Breage in Cornwall, who arrived in 1848 on the


Joseph William KITTO (1841‑1930), arrival unknown, but quite likely through Victoria around

1865, as he is a brother of my Samuel.[5]

William KITTO (1839‑), from Cornwall, who arrived in 1863 on the "Mary Shepherd"

            The children of  John Middleton KITTO of Redruth who were

·         Richard KITTO to (1843‑1868) from Redruth and his brothers and sister

·         Robert Kent KITTO (1844‑1925), Methodists from Redruth in Cornwall who both arrived in

SA. 1865 on the "Burlington" and

·         Thomas Collingwood KITTO (1835‑1909) from Redruth who arrived via Victoria and sister

·         Mary Ann KITTO (1837‑1902) from Redruth who arrived in SA married to J.O. Tiddy[6]

Edward KITTO (1837‑1894) a miner from Redruth not related to those four above, who arrived about 1870 and moved to Moonta Mines.[7]


The James KITTO from Breage and Jenifer (nee SINCOCK) eventually had eleven children and there were 37 grand children in the next generation, of which twelve were males, so the largest proportion of Protestant Kittos in South Australia are their descendants, but not all.  In Western Australia, my grandfather pointed out a Kitto family with a "Deli" in the Subiaco/Daglish area opposite the Railway Station, as being second or third cousins to himself. These Subiaco Kittos were possibly the children of Benjamin Kitto of Gumeracha, one of Samuel’s sons or from this other Breage family. Another WA farming family in Cunderdin are descended through John Bevan KITTO and James Adams KITTO, sons of James and Jenifer of Breage.


Both Thomas Collingwood and Robert Kent KITTO, sons of John Middleton KITTO, were miners from Redruth in Cornwall, and they took up residence around the Moonta Mines and Yelta Mines region of South Australia.  A good proportion of the South Australian Kittos are descended from these Moonta families.  Brother Richard died in Ballarat just three years after his arrival. Some cousins of theirs, children of James Henry Middleton KITTO, settled in Victoria and raised large families,[8]  while others settled into Tasmania.


Another Moonta family is that of Edward KITTO and Grace (nee THOMAS).  He was also a miner, with his father being Edward a miner from Tuckingmill / Redriver in Cornwall.  There were four daughters and a son Frederick from this family. This is not of the same family as Richard and Robert of Moonta.[9] It has been established that Edward’s father was Edward from Breage, and likely second cousin to my ancestor Samuel


Joseph Williams KITTO was the brother of my Samuel,  born on the 31st May 1842, and baptised on the 17th July 1842 in Breage to William and Elizabeth (nee TREMBATH).  Joseph Williams KITTO married Mary CAVANAGH (31 May 1852‑1894) and raised a large family around Port Augusta.[10]  Details are given later.



The earliest of my own Kitto family so far confirmed back in Breage is another Samuel KITTO of Breage, Cornwall. I believe he was born in 1749, baptised on 27th August 1749 in the parish church, and was a 45 year old tinner when he married a young wife. He married in Breage on the 3rd April 1795 to Mary WILLIAMS, after the publishing of banns on 22nd February, 1st and 8th of March in the Breage Parish Church.[11]  They had four children born in Breage, Cornwall:

·         Samuel born about 1795

·         William baptised on the 11th June 1797

·         James baptised on the 20th October 1799

·         Mary baptised on the 5th January 1800.[12]



This son William continues my Kitto ancestry.  He was a mason of Ashton in Breage when he was married to Elizabeth TREMBATH on the 24th December 1828 in Breage, and this was their residence throughout the births of their first six of their twelve children.[13]  Ashton was a small settlement to the East of Breage and the family lived there from 1828 to 1838.


On 25th December 1838 William KITTO negotiated a lease with the Duke of Leeds – Francis Godolphin D’arcy - for the plot location of #1484 Calebnas, just on the Southern outskirts of the main village of Breage

“Part of the field allotted to lessee where he has erected dwelling house and enclosed garden, extending about 190 feet from the turnpike road into the field, being part of Calibnas tenement near Breage Vicarage, late occ William LIMBRAY.”

The lease was for 15 shillings annual rent for 99 years or the duration of the lives of William, wife Elizabeth and son Samuel.  This is an early mention of the land development in the location near the Breage Vicarage and the suburban settlement later called Vicarage Row or Calebna Row grew from this field development.[14]


From 1839 to 1841 the next two children are quoted as born in Vicarage Row, and after that the development is called Church Town as the last of the family are born. By the 1851 census, William was a mason of Calebna, and a master mason and grocer of 9 Calebna Row in Breage for the 1861 census, and the 1871 census.[15]


They raised a large family of 12 children[16]

·         William was baptised on the 8th November 1829. He was a mason.

·         Samuel was baptised on the 8th May 1831, and was my great great grandfather. This family will be detailed later.

·         Elizabeth was baptised on the 5th May 1833 and she married on the 2nd April 1856 in Breage to John ORCHARD, a carpenter of Church Town.  Two known children are 

            William John ORCHARD bp. 14th June 1857 Breage and

            Samuel Philip ORCHARD bp. 31st October 1858 Breage.

      This family arrived in South Australia, in 1865 on the "Maori"[17]

·         Jane was baptised on the 14th June 1835, and she married on the 19th September 1860 in Breage to James WILLIAMS.  The marriage was witnessed by her brothers James and Benedict KITTO.

·         John Trembath was baptised on the 12th June 1836, and was buried on the 4th July 1852 aged 16 years.  He was training to be a pupil teacher in the National School when he died so young.

·         James was baptised on the 16th September 1838, and was a 22 year old unmarried mason, still living at home in 1861.  He married in Cornwall in 1863 and then migrated to Victoria in that year on the Sussex”, and raised a large family in Ballarat.

·         Mary was baptised on the 13th October 1839 and was buried on the 11th May 1841, aged just 19 months.

·         Benedict was baptised on the 20th March 1841 and he married on 19th August 1880 to Charlotte Elizabeth HAMPTON (born 1853 Tavistock, Devon).  He was a school    master at home with his parents from 1851 to 1861, and an Analytical Chemist of         Pendarves Road, Cambourne, with his young wife in the 1881 census. More details are given at the end of this history.

·         Joseph William was born and registered as Joseph Williams KITO but wrongly recorded when baptised as John Williams KITTO of Vicarage Row, Breage, on the 17thJuly 1842.[18]  He was always named as Joseph, and was an 18 year old mason living at home in 1861.  He left for Australia around 1865. This family will be detailed later

·         Mary Thomasina was baptised on the 22nd September 1844, stayed single, living with her mother in Calebna until her mother passed away in 1895.  Mary T survived until 1928

·         Emily (twin) was baptised on the 22nd May 1848.  She was a 12 year old scholar in 1861 and most likely married, and left home, before the 1871 census.

·         Edward (twin) was baptised on the 22nd May 1848.  He was another of the successful sons - joining the Falmouth Observatory as an assistant and became the Superintendent for thirty years. In the 1881 census, he was married to Angeline ANDREWS, a 29 year old born in Helston, and they had a 2 year old daughter - Caroline Donald Kitto.


At his death on the 30th May 1878,  William’s residence was Church Town, Breage.  Elizabeth, his widow,  was 83 years old and living on an annuity with daughter Mary Thomasina at Calebna, for the 1881 census, and still there in 1991.[19] She died in 1895, aged 87 years.



Following his arrival into South Australia estimated at around 1855, Samuel settled into the life of a pioneer in the Adelaide hills.


Samuel KITTO, aged about 25, married in the Catholic Church in West Terrace, Adelaide on the 19th June 1856 to Ellen McNAMARA,  who was born about 1836 in Ireland.[20]  Following his marriage in Adelaide, his own large family were all raised as Catholics but this is probably through his wife's religious background.



The McNamaras were a big Irish Family from County Clare that migrated to South Australia in waves.  Ellen emigrated from Ireland on the "Chatham" arriving in Adelaide on the 1st July 1852 with her sister Hanna aged 23, and brother James aged 17.[21]  Her age at that time was probably 15 but in order to emigrate needed to be 17, which was the age appearing in the Shipping Register.


On the "William Stevenson" ex Liverpool, arriving from County Clare on the 1st February 1855 was Anne McNAMARA, a dressmaker (aged 38), Mary (aged 24) and Bridgette (aged 22), both domestic servants and Stephen (aged 17), a labourer.[22]  This was the second wave which contained Ellen's mother Anne, two sisters and a brother. Mrs. Anne McNAMARA at that time would have been aged close to 55, however, to meet the emigration requirements of being under 40 gave her age as 38 for the shipping register.


A third wave of McNamaras is known to have followed with Patrick and Michael, because, where the family settled in the Adelaide Hills,  Patrick appears often to sponsor the christening of children.  There are several families of Patrick McNamaras and Michael McNamaras in the local area but these haven't been confirmed yet as Ellen's brothers.  The most likely are the ones who arrived on the “Utopia” ex Liverpool, with Michael aged 16 and Patrick aged 14 arriving in Adelaide on the 9th July 1858.  The “Utopia was a fairly modern 949 ton barque built of hackmatack, oak, birch and pine, sheathed with yellow metal and had iron bolts. The five year old ship was reasonably large by the standards of the period, being 153’3” (48 metres) long, 31’3” (9.45 metres) wide, and had a depth of 22’1” (6.7 metres)


Of the McNamara Clan, Hanna's, Bridget's and Michael’s marriages have yet to be found but the others all had very large families.[23]


·         Hanna McNAMARA (1829-) - family not yet traced


·         Mary McNAMARA (1831 ‑ 18 Dec 1897) married William HOLDEN (c1840-1909) in about 1863.  William was most likely born in London, and came to SA. on the “Orient” on its first voyage around 1856.  Mary and William did not adhere to baptising their children promptly as most were baptised six or more months after their births, with William himself baptised as a Catholic in 1892 at the age of around 50 years old.  There were eight children: Thomas (14 May 1863),  Henry (16 Sep 1864),  William (28 Feb 1867),  Mary Ellen (31 Oct 1867),  Lydia (16 Jan 1870),  Victoria (1873- 29 Mar 1898),  Stephen (19 Sep 1876)  and Catherine Frances (c1878).  Mary and William are both buried in the Catholic section of West Terrace Cemetery in Adelaide.[24]


·         Bridget McNAMARA (1833-) - family not yet traced


·         James McNAMARA (1835‑1902) married Catherine STANLEY (1832‑9 Aug 1919) at Mt Barker on the 13th May 1860.  James was a farm servant then farmer of Cudlee Creek, Mt Torrens and Burra, while Catherine was the daughter of Lawrence STANLEY and Mary nee RYAN of Kilkenny, Ireland.  Their ten known children are Stephen (1860),  Mary Theresa (16 Feb 1861),  Anne (29 Sep 1862),  John (4 Jul 1864), Lawrence (1866),  Michael (12 Sep 1867),  James (24 Aug 1869),  Catherine (8 Aug 1871),  Thomas (9 Mar 1876) and Hanna (23 Jul 1877).  James and Catherine are buried in the Burra Cemetery.[25]


·         Ellen McNAMARA (1837-1929) married Samuel KITTO


·         Stephen McNAMARA (1838‑27 Aug 1877) married Honora FLEMING (c1840-7Aug 1897) at Cudlee Creek on the 12th July 1859.  Stephen was a farmer and market gardener of Cudlee Creek and Honora was originally from Kilkenny, Ireland.  Some ten of their thirteen children are Mary Anne (11 May 1860),  John (2 Dec 1862),  Ellen (13 Dec 1864),  Maria Isobel (15 Oct 1867),  Hanorah (22 Apr 1868),  Hanna (again?) (3 Dec 1868),  Margaret (16 Aug 1871),  Agnes Jane (1872),  Catherine (23 Apr 1876) and William Vincent (6 Nov 1877) the last being born four months after the death of his father. Michael Bullock of Hillswood, SA. is a descendent of two of the McNAMARA children, through Mary Ann (McDONALD) and Ellen (HOLDEN).[26]


·         Michael McNAMARA (c1842)


·         Patrick McNAMARA (1844-26 Sep 1887) didn’t marry.  He was a 32 year old labourer of Saddleworth in 1873, and was a 43 year old single coachman of Wright Street, when he died in Adelaide Hospital on the 26th September 1887.[27]


Add to these the suspected families of Hanna, Bridget and Michael, this makes a very large clan around the Gumeracha, Kenton Valley and Cudlee Creek District, as first cousins to Samuel Kitto and Ellen McNamara's children.



Samuel began his marriage to Ellen McNamara as a mason in the Kenton Valley and, among the other buildings helped build both of the Gumeracha Hotels.[28]  He phased out his occupation as a mason between 1868 and 1875 and turned more to his farm in Kenton Valley, initially on Lots 6192 and 6328 in Talunga Land District comprising just over 200 acres along the East side of the Kenton Valley Road, but later on the West side of the same road, about 8 kilometres from Gumeracha.[29] He was fully a farmer from 1876 until his death in 1883.


Here in Kenton Valley, Samuel and Ellen raised a family of eleven children.[30]

            William John   born 21 Sep 1857        died 29 Sep 1926        (aged 69 years)

            Samuel  (jnr)    born 2 Jun 1859          died 17 Mar 1926       (aged 67 years)

            James               born 30 Dec 1860       died 1 Mar 1933         (aged 73 years)

            Elizabeth Ann born 19 Sep 1862        died 1962        (aged about 100 years)

            Mary Jane        born 22 Jul 1864

            Ellen                born 4 Feb 1866 (?)

            Joseph             born 4 Aug1866          died 3 Nov 1880         (aged 14 years)

            Stephen Edward born 26 Jul 1868

            Ellen                born 15 Jul 1870

            Benjamin         born 24 Jul 1872

            Emily Hannah born 21 May 1878       died 14 Jun 1967        (aged 89 years)



The Kitto family, because they were so numerous and vigorous, had quite an effect on the growing farmland district of Gumeracha.[31]


Sam took up the trade of wheelwright, running his own business in Gumeracha from 1885 and was much respected in the town for his ability, until he moved to Port Germein in 1896, to join his eldest brother William John. He had returned and was a wheelwright of Gumeracha when he died in 1926, aged 77 years.


Jim took over the family farm, farming in Kenton Valley.  He applied for the Letter of Administration on his father’s will on the 16th August 1912.[32]  The will had bequeathed all possessions to his mother Ellen,  however it seemed that there was family conflict over the farm from 1883 at the death of Samuel snr, which splintered the family.  The eldest sons left the district after 1885, so it was left to James, the third son, to continue on the land. 


In the commerce side Gumeracha was a growing fruit district.  In about 1881 a venture to ship 200 cases of fruit from half a dozen growers ‑ including Jim Kitto ‑ resulted in a loss of 3 shillings and sixpence for every case shipped.  This early setback was soon overcome, so now Gumeracha is prominent among the districts shipping thousands of cases annually.[33]


Steve Kitto for sixteen years was the Elder, Smith and Co. representative in Gumeracha, and for some time also served on the Gumeracha School Board.  Ben Kitto was the Gumeracha butcher at the age of 19, until he later moved, it is said, to Western Australia, and took up farming.  His descendants in WA. haven't been located yet.  Fred Kingston, who took over as the town butcher in 1896, married the eldest daughter Elizabeth Ann Kitto. Both Nell and Emily are referred to as "miss", so were not married by 1929, the Centenary year of Gumeracha.[34] Both died as spinsters.


In the late 1890's the No.2 Company of the Mounted Rifles in South Australia was established, with the right half from Teatree Gully and the left half being the Gumeracha Mounted Rifles. This inaugural group included Jim Kitto, then aged about 35.  He is remembered for being one of the best rifle shots in the district.[35]


Jim was also in the first Gumeracha Football team that formed in the 1890's, with also his younger brother Steve, aged about 25, and his cousin Tom HOLDEN.  When the Gumeracha Tennis Club was formed in about 1893, Sam and Steve Kitto, and their sister Emily, were among the foundation members. When the Gumeracha Institute outgrew its original 1864 premises the building committee to build the new hall in 1907 included both Samuel Kitto (jnr) and Stephen Kitto. 


After their father died in Kenton Valley on the 3rd of September 1883, aged 52 years, and was buried in the Gumeracha North Cemetery on the 5th September 1883,[36]  the eldest child ‑ William John Kitto ‑ (so the story goes) argued with the rest of the family over the land, so a rift developed, and the family divided up.[37]  Samuel’s will dated 17th April 1883, and 5 months before his death, left all to his wife Ellen,  however on the 16th August 1912 Ellen signed over the farm to James, named as the next of kin.  This was in spite of both William John and Samuel (jnr) being both elder children of the family and alive and well in Port Germein.[38]


Samuel KITTO’s Children


With the trade of Mason taught to him by his father, William John Kitto left Gumeracha around 1886 to live and work in Port Germein, a thriving farmland and port to the north of Port Pirie.


These two towns ‑ Port Pirie and Port Germein ‑ were competing to become the major outlet of the "Mid North Region", so skilled employment was needed.  Each town set about constructing both port facilities and a township. The Port Germein Jetty was at one stage the longest in Australia, being extended several times into deeper water to take larger draught ships.  This was all in vain since Port Pirie having the better location became the major port.  Port Germein is now almost a ghost town, having just several dozen people serving the local farming community.[39]


As a mason William John Kitto built the "Port Germein Hotel", the Church and had a hand in the construction of several other buildings about town.[40]  He also took up land at Baroota, about 12 kilometres north of Port Germein, and like his father Samuel Kitto of Gumeracha later eased out of his occupation of mason and into that of farmer.


William John Kitto married at the age of 31 to Susan Elizabeth Orchard on the 25th March 1890. Susan, aged 22, was the eldest daughter (of four girls) of Joseph Orchard and Eleanor Jane Williams, one of the local farming families. The wedding took place at the Orchard's residence in Baroota.[41]


William and Susan's family were[42]

·         Joseph Frederick William Kitto born on the 17th January 1891 at Baroota, and died on the 6th September 1968,  aged 77 years. (my grandfather)

·         Eugene Samuel Kitto born on the 6th October 1892 at Baroota,  and died on the 6th October 1949,  aged 57 years

·         Charles Albert Kitto born on the 27th January 1894 and died on the 7th October 1964 in Adelaide,  aged 70 years.

·         Ernest Orchard Kitto born on the 6th July 1896 at Port Germein, and died on the 3rd May 1964,  aged 67 years.

·         Ellen Ethel Eleanor Kitto born on the 12th March 1899

·         Susan Elizabeth Kitto born on the 28th April 1904


When Eugene was born at Baroota in 1892, William John was living on his farm at Baroota but still practicing the trade of Mason as well as farming.[43]  However the flat lands and marshes around Baroota were not the same as the fertile valleys of Gumeracha so William John Kitto was not the complete success that his father Samuel was at farming.  But he adapted to use his knowledge of building, and studied, to become a (qualified?) architect. They moved into Park Road, Kensington Park in Adelaide.


On 31st January 1917 William John enlisted,[44] joining the Light Horse of the 4th Military District reserve Guard for home duties only, and was posted to the Mitcham Army Camp[45]. He was then married to Susan Elizabeth with only one child (probably Susan) still at home in Park Road. He was a mason and bricklayer, aged 58 years 6 months, 5 foot 6 inches, 147 lbs, blue eyes, grey hair and perfect eyesight. Having previously served 6 years in the RVF at Port Germein and 6 years in the Mounted Rifles in the Jamestown Coy, he was made up to L/corporal within 2 months, on 29 Mar 1917. On 23 Apr 1918, after 1 year and 82 days he requested and was granted discharge. The war was nearly over, and finished 2 weeks later.


When he died of Pneumonia, at the age of 71, on the 29th of September 1926 at Kent Town Private Hospital in Adelaide he was a Clerk of Works for (Adelaide?) and his usual residence was at Shipsters Road in Kensington Park.[46]



As the drift in the family continued, William John was joined in 1896 in Port Germein by his younger brother Samuel.  Samuel had for several years practised the trade of wheelwright in Gumeracha from 1885 to 1891 then as a carpenter until 1895. He began in Port Germein as a wheelwright, and took up as a mason with (I presume) his brother's guidance.  He returned to Gumeracha to continue as a wheelwright and died on the 17th March 1926, and was buried in Birdwood Catholic Cemetery. He was nearly 67 years old and had not married  In his will he left all his belongings to his sister Elizabeth Ann KINGSTON of Gumeracha, with his brother James as his sole executor.  His estate was valued under 200 pounds.[47]



Jim took over as the farmer in the family, with the farm in Kenton Valley.  He married into another large farming family when he married Gertrude Winnifred SANDERCOCK on the 17th Jun 1912 at Birdwood, SA.  Gertrude was daughter of John SANDERCOCK and Emily Edith nee BOND. James and Gertrude’s children included

·         Mavis Gertrude KITTO born 10th September 1912 in Prospect, SA.[48] and married Lindsay Burnside COOPER

·         Winifred Ellen KITTO born 7 Mar 1914 but died of Diptheria on 10th Jun 1922 aged 8 years.

·         Bessie Edith KITTO born 31st July 1920 in Tweedale, SA.[49] and married Jack SHARMAN

James died on 1st May 1933 aged 72 years and was buried in Birdwood Catholic Cemetery, while Gertrude Winnifred died on 23rd Jan 1926 and is buried in Gumeracha North Cemetery



Young Joseph died on the 3rd November 1880, aged just 14 years,  and was buried in St Matthews R/C Cemetery, Birdwood,  in the grave of his grandmother Ann McNAMARA who had died two years earlier on the 21st April 1878 in Gumeracha.[50]




Steven stayed in Gumeracha as the representative of Elder, Smith and Co. and raised a family of 5 girls and 7 boys.  He married in 1903 to Hedwig Marta (Hetti) KLOSTERMAN and there were 13 children.[51]



He was the butcher in Gumeracha between 1891 to 1896



Emily remained active in the district for many years.  She never married and lived to the ripe old age of 89 years.  She died in 1967 in the Home for the Incurables in Fisher Street, Fullarton, and was buried on the 16th June 1967 in the Evergreen Memorial Park in Enfield.[52]

Samuel KITTO’s Brothers



James was the next eldest surviving brother to Samuel,  baptised on the 16th September 1838, and by the 1861 census was a 22 year old unmarried mason, still living at home.  He married in Cornwall in 1863 to Elizabeth WATTERS (or WALTERS) daughter of John WATTERS and Elizabeth (nee JACKA) and then migrated to Victoria in that year on the Sussex”. They raised a family of six children in Ballarat, but the seventh and eldest child had been born and died on board Sussex en route to Australia in 1863. This very large family of Victoria includes his grandson, the late Sir Frank KITTO, High Court Judge of Australia. This family will need to have its history expanded by members of the family




Benedict, brother to Samuel, was born on the 9th February 1841 and baptised on the 20th March 1841 at Breage. He was a school master at home with his parents from 1851 to 1861, and an Analytical Chemist of Pendarves Road, Cambourne, with his young wife in the 1881 census. He had married on 19th August 1880 to Charlotte Elizabeth HAMPTON who was born in 1853 in Tavistock, Devon, eldest daughter of James HAMPDEN of Northill.  They had two sons - William KITTO (M.I.M.M.) and Benedict KITTO.


Benedict senior was the school master at Germoe school from 1858 to 1862, and with an interest more in metallurgy than teaching, turned to analytical chemistry.  He wrote “On Mineral Veins” a paper in the Journal of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society in 1869[53], and after some years as an analytical chemist he became the Chief Chemist and Analyst for Rio Tinto Mining Company from 1882 to 1887.  He took up private practice as a Consulting Chemist in 1887, and by 1892 he was appointed the Public Analyst for Cornwall from 1892 to 1914.  Benedict KITTO was The Founder Member of The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.  He died in London on 13th May 1928 aged 87 years.


His two sons continued his metallurgy business. William died in Penzance in 1951, and Benedict junior died in Buckingham in 1949. Benedict junior had 3 sons in the Middlesex area, one being killed in action in 1942 in Israel in the war.




Another brother to Samuel was born in Breage, Cornwall on 31st May 1842 and named Joseph Williams KITTO[54] and although he was baptised there as John Williams KITTO on 17th July 1842[55] he was always referred to as Joseph.  Perhaps the handwritten register entry by the Rev. J Perry is just another of those many spelling errors of the Parish incumbent. Joseph is known to have arrived in Victoria following his two elder brothers; his obituary says it was on the “Royal George” about 1867[56].  James stayed in Victoria but Joseph William left for South Australia, where his other brother Samuel was now farming.


He married on the 31st October 1875 in South Australia to Mary CAVANAGH (31st May 1852-1894) daughter of Patrick and Elizabeth (nee STAFFORD) and they had 10 children, however only four survived into adulthood. Mary died in 1984 likely of childbirth complications as it was just two weeks after the birth of their youngest.


Joseph was a builder and contractor at Glenelg, Conwaytown and Port Augusta, SA. In Port Augusta he was in charge of building the Public School, Town Hall, Court House, National Bank, and the old Royal Hotel, and also built many other public buildings around the State. He was a member of the Independent Order of the Oddfellows and was also keenly interested in racing. He was a teetotaller, but very fond of his pipe, and was well liked for his happy disposition. He was quoted as being hale and hearty on the Saturday May 31st, his 89th birthday and expected to live for many more years.


He died suddenly in his sleep on the 4th June 1931, just four days after this 89th birthday. He was celebrated in the newspaper at that time as “The Oldest Inhabitant” of Port Augusta, having lived there for around 50 years. He died at the residence of his eldest daughter Mrs F.C. (Bessie) Christopherson of Port Augusta where he had been living in retirement for many years.[57]




Edward, a twin of Emily, was baptised on the 22nd May 1848 the youngest of the family. He went to the Falmouth Observatory as a secretary in 1869, sole secretary in 1873 and Superintendent of the Observatory in 1883. He retired on the 30th June 1913 after 44 years of service.


Edward married in 1877 in Breage to Angeline ANDREWS, a 29 year old born around 1851 in Cornwall, and they had one daughter – Caroline born on 1 Oct 1878 in Budock, Cornwall.[58]


Some reports on Edward’s activities from the Journals of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society


In 1900 "At the Annual Meeting a loyal address giving expression to the sorrow felt at the death of their royal patroness, Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and offering congratulations to His Majesty King Edward VII on his accession to the throne, was adopted for presentation by the president, Dr. Gott, Bishop of Truro. Mr Edward Kitto, the secretary, who attended the funeral on Saturday, February 2nd, referred to the memorable occasion in the annual report as 'being his sad privilege to witness that mournful yet imposing spectacle, and to join with the teeming thousands who thronged the line of route, to show their unspoken sorrow at the loss of their dearly beloved Queen, who had left amongst her subjects an undying memory of a great life's task nobly accomplished.'"

1905 "At he Annual Meeting, held on the 5th of February 1906, Mr. Edward Kitto was presented with an illuminated address, an engrossed list of the contributors, and a cheque for £200. on his resignation of the office of secretary. The testimonial (signed by the president) expressed the grateful appreciation of the zeal and ability displayed, and of the continuous devotion he had shown to the interests of the Society throughout the thirty-six years he had been in office. He was appointed assistant secretary in 1869, sole secretary in 1873, and superintendent of the Observatory in 1883."

1914 "In order to make the Observatory suitable for the residence of an Observer, the Committee purchased the bulk of Mr. Kitto's furniture, at a valuation. They also presented him with a substantial sum and gave Mrs. Kitto and Mr. Joshua Bath Phillips honoraria on the termination of their services on the 30th of June 1913. Mr. Kitto was presented with a framed illuminated testimonial on his leaving, after forty-four years of valuable and faithful service. The Testimonial was signed by the president, all the members of the Observatory Committee and the honorary secretary."


Their daughter Caroline later married in 1909 in Falmouth to Frank Coleman POLGLASE a solicitor in Penryn, Cornwall. Caroline died in 1968 and Frank died in 1962, and I have not found any children of the couple.[59]


Caroline Donald KITTO b. 1 Oct 1878 & bp. 26 Dec 1878 Buddock, Con, Eng. (d/o KITTO & WILLIAMS in GRO Q4 1878 #5c/174 Falmouth) m. 1909 Falmouth, Con, Eng. (Q4 1909 #5c/321 Falmouth) d. 1968 Con, Eng. (Q4 1968 #7a/29 Falmouth) aged 90 years, occ: dau (2) in 1881, scholar (12) in 1891, wife (31) in 1911

m/to Frank Coleman POLGLASE b. Jul 1880 Falmouth Eng. (s/o James Penrose POLGLASE (1849) & Annie Wilmot TRESIDDER (1850) m. 1872 both of Falmouth) d. 1962 Con, Eng. (Q4 1962 #7a/33 Falmouth) aged 82 years, occ: son (11m) in 1881, solicitor (30) in Penryn in 1911 – no visible children





                    WILLIAM JOHN'S CHILDREN           


My grandfather was Joseph Frederick William KITTO, or "Fred" as we all knew him, even down to his youngest grandchild.  Fred was born on the 17th January 1891 at Baroota in the Mid North of South Australia, and grew up in Port Germein and Kensington, Adelaide.


He married a Victorian, whom he met at a ball.  Ethel Margaret MERRICK was born on the 12th February 1894 in Footscray, the daughter of James Bond Merrick, a potter of Richmond, Victoria, and Margaret Mahony (or O'Mahoney as she called herself), the daughter of an early convict. At the time of their marriage Fred was an iron fitter residing in Park Road in Kensington Park, and Ethel was a machinist residing at 10 East Parade in Kensington.


They were married on the 31st March 1915 at St Matthews Church in Kensington by the reverend Robert W.G. Dempster, with witnesses Sam KITTO, carpenter of Kensington Park, and Ruby WATTS, house duties of Sturt Street, Adelaide.


Fred and Ethel had three daughters, all born in Kensington.

·         Sylvia Maud KITTO born 18th October 1916 Kensington Gardens

·         Gwenneth Margaret KITTO born 16 April 1919 Kensington Park

·         Joseph Ruth KITTO born 10 July 1925 Shipsters Road, Kensington


The two eldest, Sylvia and Gwen, went to school in South Australia. The youngest, my mother Jo, was just seven years old when the family decided to leave Adelaide for Western Australia, sailing on the "Westralia" on the day Sir Donald Bradman was married, 30th April 1932, and reaching Perth on the day that Snowy Rowles was hung on the 13th June 1932. It seems a long time for a sea trip but that’s how the family folk lore tells it.


Fred worked successfully as a fitter and turner, and eventually retired as the works foreman for Joyce Brothers, then a growing bedstead manufacturer, and who are now a major furniture construction company. 

The family residence was in 2 Florence Street, Cottesloe over the site that had previously supplied quarried limestone to some of the constructions between Perth and Fremantle in the early days of Western Australia. 


When my parents were first married they occupied the two back rooms of the house, one of which was partitioned and set up with a stove and sink, and kitchen furniture in one half with beds in the other.  Another room was used later when the family grew.  The fridge was shared by all.


I can remember being just five years old when there was the excitement with the arrival of the new electric fridge, an “English Electric”, which replaced the Coolgardie Safe.  This meant that the iceman in his cold watery green truck would no longer be one of the deliverers that us kids used to welcome by getting in the road underfoot as great lumps of frozen water was dumped into the top of the safe.  This new fridge was to be used by me later as a beer fridge in Scarborough, Paraburdoo and Geraldton, and finally stopped working when I was 45 years old.  It had not stopped working for around 40 years.


We moved out to our own home when I was six, leaving Fred and Grandma to their own house.  But we were only a kilometre away, and every Friday night went round there for a family roast dinner.  Another excitement at the grandparents place was the arrival of a brand new TV in 1959, a beautiful 21 inch “Pye”, that Fred bought for himself as a retirement present.  But it could only show us the test pattern for three or four weeks because even the TV station had not begun full broadcasting then.  We watched with eyes glued through the teething troubles as TVW7 honed up their signals with several practice programs before the official opening in 1959.


Fred and Ethel separated in their later years through health reasons.  Ethel’s faculties deteriorated as senility set in, so was admitted to a nursing home in South Perth, while Fred’s smoking caught up with him and he had difficulty breathing through emphysema.  He shared his time between living with us in Cottesloe or Gwen’s place in Katanning.


Fred died on 6th September 1968 in Cottesloe, aged 77 years, four years before his wife Ethel who died on 22nd March 1972 in the South Perth hostel. Their final resting place is together in the Catholic section of Karrakatta Cemetery.



Eugene Samuel KITTO was a carpenter of Shipster's Road, Kensington Park in 1915 when he married.  On 16th June 1915 in St Matthew's Church, Kensington, he married Ruby Myrtle Watts. the 21 year old daughter of Herbert Watts of Stuart Street, Adelaide.  She was born in 1895 at Port Pirie and was in Domestic Service at the time of her marriage.  One of the witnesses to the marriage was C.E. Walter, a master tailor, of Rose Park, Adelaide.  He was Sam's uncle ‑ Ed Walter, the husband of Alice Orchard, his mother's younger sister. His tailor shop was in Rundle Street


Of Sam and Ruby's two sons, Clem Kitto is surrounded in Adelaide, South Australia by children and grandchildren, and John Kitto has his own family ties in Melbourne, Victoria.



Charles Albert KITTO, usually known as Albert, married Jean, and they lived in Edwardstown, Adelaide.  An only daughter, Heather, lives in Darwin, married to Tony Harris. I'm still trying to find them.



Ernest Orchard KITTO was nicknamed Rocky by the family because he loved rock buns. On the 6th September 1920 in the "St Matthews Church", Marryatville, SA. he married Fanny Brooks HOW who was born in 1898 at Aldinga.


As a returned serviceman from the First World War in 1919 Ernest began his first occupation as a carpenter at Dunstan Quarries. The first of their two children, Keith Ernest, was born 5th August 1922 at Marryatville.  The family moved to Mclaren Vale in 1923 where Ernest went into business as a Bootmaker/Saddler. Here the second son, Allen Leslie, was born 10th October 1924 at Willunga.  His wife, Fanny, opened a boarding house for fruit pickers and travellers until 1928.


They then moved back to Adelaide to open a delicatessen at Glen Osmond, run by Fanny, while Ernest began a boot makers shop at Marryatville.  Later they sold the deli to buy Theatre Catering at the Princess Theatre, Marryatville, and added another one afterwards at the Norwood Star Theatre, Norwood.  The Princess Theatre was sold to buy the Capitol Theatre, St Peters.


At that time the family living at High Street Marryatville, found too much travelling was involved, so that house was let and another was bought at George Street, Strepney, to be close to both businesses at North Adelaide.  Another North Adelaide business was then added ‑ the Picadilly Theatre. 


At the outbreak of the Second World War, Ernest Orchard Kitto, then aged 42, tried to enlist but was too old, so he joined the Allied Works Council, building a road between Adelaide and Darwin.  His wife Fannie Kitto sold Picadilly and kept the others.  She ran them both, later with the help of Keith's young wife Joyce.  Keith was then in the RAAF and Allen had joined the AIF.


On returning home, Ernest went into semi‑retirement, doing boot making as Keith and Allen took over the business.  Just before TV came to Australia they sold the theatres businesses. Keith and his wife Marjorie Joyce (nee Randall) bought the freehold Alma Hotel in Norwood and ran it from the 28th Mar 1951 until the 30th Jun 1967.  Allen and his wife Dulcie Beryl (nee MOIR) bought the freehold Port Germein Hotel, which had been built by his grandfather William John Kitto some decades before, and ran it from the 20th Jul 1951 until the 25th Jan 1953, when they then moved to the "Old Spot Hotel" (or "Little Para") in Main North Road, Salisbury Heights from the 2nd Mar 1953 until the 26th Jul 1953.


Ernest Orchard KITTO died at the Daw Park Repatriation Hospital on 5th May 1964, aged 67 years, and his wife Fanny died at St Georges in SA. in 1982, aged 84 years.



Ellen Ethel Eleanor KITTO married Ernest (Shimmer) LINES and now lives in Hazelwood Park, Adelaide (in 1989) ‑ aged 90 years. Shimmer passed away on the 5th July 1962.



Susan Elizabeth KITTO married Allan McDonald McALLAN, a market gardener, whose farm is now Findon, the suburb of Adelaide where Susan now still lives ‑ aged 85 years (in 1989)


end of file


The KITTO - McNAMARA baptisms

Extracted by me from the Catholic Archives Centre, Adelaide - in the Mt Barker Registers (c1986)

(I may have been reading the dates wrong but I don't usually make that many mistakes)


Mary McNAMARA and William HOLDEN


1.         (#MB 1066) to William and Mary HOLDEN of Cudlee Creek

Thomas HOLDEN b. 14 May 1863 & bp. Kenton Valley,

            (sponsors James and Hondra McNAMARA (nee Fleming)

(Registry = no Thomas HOLDEN registered to this couple)


2.         (#MB 1437) to William and Mary HOLDEN of Gumeracha

Henry HOLDEN b. 16 Sep 1864 & bp. 26 Nov 1867,

            (sponsors Timothy McCARTHY & Bridget KELEHER (is this Bridget McNAMARA)

(Registry = Henry b. 16 Sep 1864 Gumeracha - #34/248 Talunga)


3.         (#MB 1432) to William and Mary HOLDEN of Gumeracha

William HOLDEN b. 28 Feb 1866 & bp. 8 Nov 1867  at Cudlee Creek

            (sponsors Stephen McNAMARA and Hanley ?)

            (Registry = William b. 16 Mar 1866 Gumeracha - #44/204 Talunga)


4.         (#MB 1594) to William and Mary HOLDEN of Gumeracha

Mary Ellen HOLDEN b. 31 Oct 1867 & bp. 23 Feb 1868 at Blumberg

            (sponsors Peter McMAHON & Ellen McCARTHY)

(Registry = Mary Ellen b. 30 Sep 1867 Gumeracha - #59/161 Talunga)


5.         (#MB 1827) to William and Mary HOLDEN

Lydia HOLDEN b. 16 Jan 1870 & bp. 23 Jan 1870 at St Matthews

            (sponsors John MONOUPE & Johanna GUTHERY)

            (Registry = Lydia Ann b. 31 Oct 1869 Gumeracha - #78/453 Talunga)


6.         Ellen Victoria Adelaide HOLDEN b. not seen in Mt Barker Registers

            (Registry = Ellen Victoria Adelaide b. 31 Dec 1873 near Gumerachs - #132/420 Talunga)


7.         (#MB 2426) to William and Mary HOLDEN

Stephen HOLDEN b. 19 Sep 1876 & bp. 29 Apr 1877 at Blumberg

            (sponsors Roger and Mary MONOGUE)

            (Registry = Stephen b. 19 Sep 1875 retreat Valley - #156/260 Talunga)



James McNAMARA and Catherine STANLEY m. 13 May 1860 Mt Barker, SA. both of Cudlee Creek (#MB 135 wit: Edward STANLEY of Cudlee Creek & Esther McMAHON of Cudlee Creek)


1.         Stephen McNAMARA Given as first child in BISA  b. not seen in Mt Barker Registers

            (Registry = not found in Registry)


2.         (#MB 767) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Cudlee Creek

Mary Theresa McNAMARA b. 16 Feb 1861 & bp. 23 Apr 1861 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors William WHEELAN & Anne McNAMARA

(Registry = not found in Registry)


3.         (#MB 954) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Cudlee Creek

Anne McNAMARA b. 29 Sep 1862 & bp. 21 Oct 1862 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors Stephen McNAMARA & Johanah HURLEY)

(Registry = Ann b. 9 Oct 1862 Gumeracha - #25/532 Talunga)


4.         (#MB 1179) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Kenton Valley

John McNAMARA b. 4 Jul 1864 & bp. 19 Jul 1864 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors Edmund STANLEY & Mary CUSHEN)

(Registry = John b. 4 Jul 1864 Gumeracha - #32/355 Talunga)


5.         Registered to James McNAMARA and Catherine STANLEY

Lawrance McNAMARA b. 1866 from BISA not seen in Mt Barker Registers

(Registry = Lawrance b. 12 Jun 1866 Gumeracha - #46/290 Talunga)


6.         (#MB 1535) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Retreat Valley

Michael McNAMARA b. 12 Sep 1867 & bp. 29 Sep 1867 St Matthews,

            (sponsors Rodger MONOUGE & Esther McMAHON)

(Registry = Michael b. 12 Sep 1867 Gumeracha - #59/163 Talunga)


7.         (#MB 1775) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Blumberg

James McNAMARA b. 24 Aug 1869 & bp. 5 Sep 1869 Blumberg,

            (sponsors John KITTO & Mary STANLEY)

(Registry = not found in Registry)


8.         (#MB 2006) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Kenton Valley

Catherine McNAMARA b. 8 Aug 1871 & bp. 3 Sep 1871 St Matthews,

            (sponsors Tim QUINN & Margaret STANLEY of Kenton Valley (nee SHEA ?)

(Registry = Catherine b. 8 Aug 1871 Kenton Valley - #99/468 Talunga)


9.         (#MB 2362) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Mt Torrens

Thomas McNAMARA b. 9 Jan 1876 & bp. 5 Mar 1876 Blumberg,

            (sponsors Sam KITTO & Mary A STANLEY)

(Registry = Thomas McNAMARRA b. 9 Jan 1876 Mount Torrens - #161/107 Talunga)


10.       (#MB 2439) to James and Catherine McNAMARA of Mt Torrens

Hannah McNAMARA b. 23 Jul 1877 & bp. 26 Jul 1877 Woodside,

            (sponsor Bridgit KAIN)

(Registry = Hannah b. 23 Jul 1877 Mount Torrens - #188/333 Talunga)




Stephen McNAMARA and Honora FLEMING m. 12 Jul 1859 at Cudlee Creek, SA. both of Cudlee Creek (#MB 120 wit:James McNAMARA of Cudlee Creek & Mary PURCELL of Gumeracha)


1.         (#MB 672) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Mary Anne McNAMARA b. 11 May 1860 & bp. 17 Jul 1860 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors Patrick McNAMARA & Ann HOLLAND)

(Registry = Mary Ann b. 11 May 1860 Black Creek - #19/187 Talunga)


2.         (#MB 993) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

John McNAMARA b. 2 Dec 1862 & bp. 20 Jan 1863 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors James and Catherine McNAMARA)

(Registry = John b. 2 Dec 1862 Gumeracha - #28/83 Talunga)


3.         (#MB 1248) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Ellen McNAMARA b. 13 Dec 1864 & bp. 17 Jan 1865 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors James McNAMARA & Bridget DOOLEY)

(Registry = not found in Registry)


4.         (#MB 1429) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Mary Anne McNAMARA b. 15 Oct 1867 & bp. 8 Nov 1867 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors Patrick CULLIGAN & Ellen McNAMARA)

(Registry = not found in Registry)


5.         (#MB 1616) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Hanora McNAMARA b. 22 Apr 1868 & bp ?

(Registry = Honarah b. 28 Apr 1868 Curdlay Creek - #64/40 Talunga)


6.         (#MB 1825) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Hannah McNAMARA b. 3 Dec 1869 & bp. 9 Jan 1870 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors Bernard and Catherine McMAHON)

(Registry = Hannah b. 4 Dec 1869 Cudlee Creek, Gumeracha - #80/589 Talunga)


7.         (#MB 2009) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Margaret McNAMARA b. 16 Aug 1871 & bp. 17 Sep 1871 at Blumberg,

            (sponsors John FLEMMING & Ellen KITTO)

(Registry = Margaret b. 16 Aug 1871 Cudlee Creek nr Gumeracha - #99/472 Talunga)


8.         Registered to Stephen McNAMARA and Honorah FLEMING

Agnes Jane McNAMARA b. 1872 as given in BISA, not seen in MB Registers

(Registry = Jane Agnes b. 14 Sep 1872 Cudlee Reek - #116/130 Talunga)


9.         (#MB 2371) to Stephen and Honora McNAMARA

Catherine McNAMARA b. 23 Apr 1876 & bp. 1 May 1876 at Cudlee Creek,

            (sponsors Peter McMAHON & Mary GUTHRIE)

(Registry = not found in Registry)


10.       (#MB 2460 to Stephen and Honora FLEMING

William Vincent McNAMARA b. 6 Nov 1877 & bp. 9 Dec 1877 at Blumberg,

(sponsors James and Bridgit FOOTE (nee O'NEILL))

(Registry = William b. 6 Nov 1877 Cudlee Creek, Gumeracha - #192/442 Talunga)



[1]     Marriage Certificate #728/1856 Adelaide, SA.

[2]     IGI, Parish registers from Delys Wright

[3]     1851 Census from Delys Wright

[4]     Hazel Middleton and Delys Wright correspondence

[5]     Claire Foorde, Loretta Grimster and Alison Moulder correspondence

[6]     Dorothy Collingwood Kitto correspondence

[7]     Leonie Arnold and Robyn A. Ellis correspondence

[8]     Dorothy Collingwood Kitto correspondence

[9]     Leonie Arnold and Robyn A Ellis correspondence

[10]     Alison Moulder, Claire Foord, and Loretta Grimster correspondence

[11]     Original Parish Registers - Breage, Cornwall 1 Mar 1795

[12]     IGI, and parish registers from Delys Wright’s correspondence

[13]     Parish registers from Delys Wright’s correspondence

[14]     from catalogue for the Manor of the Duke of Leeds

[15]     Census details 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 from Delys Wright

[16]     Parish registers from Delys Wright’s notes

[17]     Ships Indexes of South Australia

[18]     Original parish Registers - Breage Cornwall 17 Jul 1842

[19]     Census details 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 from Delys Wright

[20]     Marriage certificate #728/1856 Adelaide, SA.

[21]     Shipping List “Chatham

[22]     Shipping List “William Stevenson”

[23]     Mt Barker Catholic Registers, Adelaide Catholic Archives.

[24]     Monica Bullock (HOLDEN descendent) correspondence.

[25]     Mt Barker Catholic Registers, Adelaide Catholic Archives.

[26]     Mt Barker Catholic Registers, Adelaide Catholic Archives.

[27]     Monica Bullock correspondence.

[28]     My grandfather Fred Kitto’s reminiscences

[29]     Dept of Land Administration

[30]     Mt Barker Catholic Registers, Adelaide Catholic Archives.

[31]     J.E. Monfries editor, Gumeracha 1839 - 1939

[32]     Will of Samuel Kitto proved 16 Aug 1912

[33]     J.E. Monfries editor, Gumeracha 1839 - 1939

[34]     ibid

[35]     ibid

[36]     Monumental Inscription - Gumeracha Cemetery

[37]     Family folklore.

[38]     Will of Samuel senior, proved 16th Aug 1912 in SA. Supreme Court.

[39]     personal visit 1985, and several potted histories

[40]     Fred KITTO’s reminiscences, William John’s son, my grandfather.

[41]     Marriage certificate #928/1890 Adelaide, SA.

[42]     Correspondence with all the family

[43]     Birth Certificate #487/1892 Frome, SA.

[44]     William John KITTO, #G104 L/Corp, service papers.

[45]     Micham Army Camp is now Colonel Light Gardens.

[46]     Death Certificate # /1926 Norwood, SA.

[47]     Will of Samuel Kitto proved 7th May 1926 SA.

[48]     Birth Certificate #24/1912 District Register, Unley Library

[49]     Birth Certificate #195/17 District Book, Mount Barker Library

[50]     Monumental Inscriptions, Birdwood Catholic Cemetery

[51]     Judith HANNA, descendent of Steve KITTO

[52]     Death Certificate #1629/1967 District Book at Unley Library

[53]     Journal of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society 1869

[54]     Certificate GRO indexed 2nd Quarter #9/118 Helston

[55]     Breage Register #452 of page 18

[56]     Obituary in newspaper cutting just after 4 Jun 1931

[57]     Several newspaper cuttings sent by g/dau Joyce Stafford KITTO (23 Nov 01)

[58]     1881 census of Falmouth District

[59]     Assembled certificates - KS